different types of heterotrophic nutrition

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Heterotrophic nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The four main types of heterotrophic nutrition are: Holozoic nutrition ...

Animal nutrition

There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water.

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.

The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in joules or calories (sometimes called "kilocalories" and on other rare occasions written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), seems also to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acidmonomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.

Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.

Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances such as toxins or various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in too large amounts.


Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.


A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.

Many studies have shown that unsaturated fats, particularly monounsaturated fats, are best i

From Yahoo Answers

Question:A biology student was given threeunlabeled jars of pond water from the same source, each containing a different type of mobile unicellular organism: euglena, ameba, and paramecium. The only information the student has is that the ameba and paramecium are both heterotrophs and the euglena can be either heterotrophic or autotrophic, depending on its environment. Which procedure and resulting observation would help identify the jar that contains the euglena? 1. Expose only one side of each jar to light. After 24 hours, only in the jar containing euglena will most of the organisms be seen on the darker side of the jar. 2. Expose all side of each jar to light. After 48 hours, the jar with the highest dissolved carbon dioxide content will contain the euglena. 3. Over a period of one week, determine the method of reproduction used by each type of organism. If mitotic cell division is observed, the jar will contain euglena. 4. Prepare a wet-mount slide of specimens from each jar and observe each slide with a compound light microscope. Only the euglena will have cholorplasts. Could someone please tell me which it is and why? I have to answer this for biology homework but we haven't learned about this yet.

Answers:The answer is (4). Because the Euglena can be autotrophic - this means that it can synthesise its own food, by photosynthesis. For this purpose, it has chloroplasts, to absorb light energy, and convert light energy to chemical energy in food. (1) is untrue: Euglena will move TOWARDS light, not away from it - so it can get more light for photosynthesis. The others will either move away from light, or be unaffected by it. (2) is untrue. When the Euglena makes food, the process of photosynthesis uses up CO2 - so the Euglana jar will have the LOWEST CO2 content. (3) is irrelevant. All of these organisms reproduce asexually by fission, involving mitosis.

Question:There's a follow-up question after this: What is the comparison and contrast between the structures, nutrition and reproduction of the 5 kingdoms ( Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae)? Please reply A.S.A.P. Thanks for helping.

Answers:The five-kingdom classification of organisms Nomenclature: Naming of organisms Binomial: Biological name of an organism Genus species Taxon: Set of organisms within a category / Taxonomy / Study of biological classification Different levels of taxons: SPECIES, GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM, KINGDOM Most number of species on right Most similar organisms on left Unicellular: Single cell; Colonial: Groups of cells; Multicellular: Many cells Autotrophs produce energy from inorganic sources Phototrophs from photosynthesis/sunlight Chemotrophs from simple inorganic (oxidative) processes Heterotrophs digest and absorb organic molecules Prokaryotae (prokaryotes) Cell structure: Prokaryotes, unicellular Prokaryotes lack cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotes Cell wall: murein Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis), aerobic heterotrophs Divide by binary fission, not by mitosis 10 m in size (bacterial cell, filaments of blue-green bacteria) Mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the root of legumes / symbiotic Protoctista (protoctists) Cell structure: eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular Cell wall: (sometimes) polysaccharide Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic Placed in this category by exclusion / cannot be placed in any other kingdom Slime moulds / fungi characteristics Protozoa / heterotrophic and ingest food Algae / photosynthesis 10 m (amoeba) - 1m (Laminaria / large brown alga) Fungi Cell structure: eukaryotes, multicellular and unicellular (yeast) Cell wall: chitin Nutrition: heterotrophic / saprotrophic decomposers or parasitic Genus Penicillium Body of a fungus is composed of thin filaments called hyphae / form a mycelium Secret enzymes / external digestion / absorbs resulting nutrients Erect hyphae that grow upwards from the mycelium carry their reproductive spores Chains of spores on the erect hyphae / coloured mould visible on stored food Break down organic matter Plantae (plants) Cell structure: only multicellular, eukaryotic; large vacuoles Cell wall: cellulose Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthetic) Growth is restricted to meristems (layers/patches of dividing cells) Non-motile; adapted to land / strong tissues, leave gas exchange system, waterproofed Eg mosses, ferns, conifers, angiosperms (flowering plants) Plant kingdom has two different types of adults in their life cycle Gametophytes, hidden in plant / sexual reproduction forms multicellular zygotes Sporophytes, what we call plant / asexual reproduction to form spores that germinate into gametophytes Gametophyte (n) gamete (n) fertilisation zygote (2n) mitosis sporophyte (2n) meiosis spore (n) mitosis gametophyte (n) Animalia (humans, animals) Cell structure: eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell wall Develop form a blastocyst / embryo Have nervous and hormonal control systems No cell wall! Nutrition: heterotrophic, involving a digestive system Are motile and grow throughout tissues (no mersitems)

Question:I am having trouble with an assignment due Friday. I need to know the arrangement of cells in all six kingdoms, the nutrition of all six kingdoms(how the acquire it), and the structure of the cell wall. I sadly do not know any of these.

Answers:First of all, there are not 6 kingdoms... there was an old scheme with 5 kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia), but then it was found that the organisms in Monera were sufficiently different from each other that they had to be considered different. Thus, they came up with the three domains: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria (both of which were lumped together in the old Monera kingdom), and Eukaryota, which is an umbrella group containing Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Archaebacteria and Eubacteria are prokaryotic, single celled organisms. The nutrition varies - some are photosynthetic, some chemosynthetic and some heterotrophic. You can check out the contents of the cell walls by looking them up in Google or Yahoo (just type the domain name into the search box). Plantae (photosynthetic) have cell walls (different from those of bacteria), but are eukaryotic. Animalia (heterotrophic) don't have cell walls.

Question:I can't find anything about it on the internet, only things about pig's blood, and even then it's not much to go on. Has anyone ever done a nutritional analysis of human blood? 1. Could it sustain a person? 2. Is the iron level too high to drink a lot of it? Or what about, say, a child to drink? (only because i've heard that iron poisoning is the leading cause of death in children under age 6, not because i want to give any kids blood to drink.) 3. How much blood could a human drink before becoming ill? 4. If a person drank a different blood type than their own, would they become sick? I know that's four questions, but they all tie into my main question: Can humans actually drink the blood of other humans and survive off it? What's the nutritional content of blood? This has nothing to do with Twilight. I've never seen or read it. I just wanted to throw that out there, because I'm sure I'll have a lot of annoying responses that assume i'm some twilight fangirl. I'm not. Yes, this question was (obviously) inspired by vampires, but has nothing to do with twilight. I'm just curious about the science of this.

Answers:I don't think it holds enough water to sustain a person. It is also quite acidic. Blood drinking isn't so common because it doesn't do you a whole lot of good. If you come into contact and consume blood that is not your type, or compatiable, you could become very sick, or your body would just attack those cells, but they have better things to do.

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