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Plant collecting

Plant collecting involves procuring live or dried plant specimens, for the purposes of research, cultivation or as a hobby.

Collection of live specimens

The collection of live plant specimens from the wild, sometimes referred to as plant hunting, is an activity that has occurred for centuries. The earliest recorded evidence of plant hunting was in 1495 BC when botanists were sent to Somalia to collect incense trees for Queen Hatshepsut. The Victorian era saw a surge in plant hunting activity as botanical adventurers explored the world to find exotic plants to bring home, often at considerable personal risk. These plants usually ended up in botanical gardens or the private gardens of wealthy collectors. Prolific plant hunters in this period included William Lobb and his brother Thomas Lobb, George Forrest, Joseph Hooker, Charles Maries and Robert Fortune.

Collection of herbarium specimens

Herbarium specimens of plants are collected for a number of different uses. They can assist in accurate identification and provide a species record for a time and place that can be utilised in distribution maps. They can also provide biological material for researchers, a reference point to document scientific names and vouchers for research and seed collections.

Plant collecting as a hobby

Plant collecting may also refer to a hobby, in which the hobbyist takes identifiable samples of plant species found in nature, dries them, and stores them in a paper sheet album, a simple herbarium, alongside with the information of the finding location, finding date, etc. necessary scientific information. As in many collecting hobbies, rarer specimens have been valued. However, when collecting living organisms, the conservation aspects must precede the collector's ambitions. This has led in some cases to a collector voluntarily taking part, helping scientists, in some research areas, provided he can store the "collectible". In fact, historically, many species have initially been found within a collection of a collector.

Usually, a plant can be identified in nature, since they are stationary. The advent of digital cameras has led many plant collectors to switch totally to photography. Some have switched to collecting live specimens of various plant species in their gardens, building a sort of "private botanical garden". Some have specialized in a specific group, the orchids and the roses and their cultivars are among the most collected.

Terminology

Plant "discovery" means the first time that a new plant was recorded for science, often in the form of dried and pressed plants (a herbarium specimen) being sent to a botanical establishment such as Kew Gardens in London, where it would be examined, classified and named.

Plant "introduction" means the first time that living matter – seed, cuttings or a whole plant – was brought back to Europe. Thus, the Handkerchief tree (Davidia involucrata) was discovered byPère David in 1869 but introduced to Britain by Ernest Wilson in 1901.

Often, the two happened simultaneously: thus Sir Joseph Hooker discovered and introduced his Himalayan rhododendrons between 1849 and 1851.


Binomial nomenclature

The formal system of naming species of living things is called binomial nomenclature (especially in botany, but also used by zoologists), binominal nomenclature (since 1953 the technically correct form in zoology), or binary nomenclature. This system of naming was invented byLinnaeus. The up-to-date version of the rules of naming for animals and plants are laid out in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature respectively.

The essence of the binomial system of naming is this: each species name has two parts, the genus name and the species name (also known as the specific epithet), for example, Homo sapiens, which is the scientific name of the human species. Every two-part scientific name is either formed out of (modern scientific)Latin or is a Latinized version of words from other languages.

The two-part name of a species is commonly known as its Latin name. However,biologists and philologists prefer to use the term scientific name rather than "Latin name", because the words used to create these names are not always from the Latin language, even though words from other languages have usually been Latinized in order to make them suitable for this purpose. Species names are often derived from Ancient Greek words, or words from numerous other languages. Frequently species names are based on the surname of a person, such as a well-regarded scientist, or are a Latinized version of a relevant place name.

Carl von Linné (also known as Linnaeus) chose to use a two-word naming system, and did not use what over time came to be a full seven-category system (kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species.) Linnaeus chose a binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the whole name of the species. For example, humans belong to genus Homo and their specific name is sapiens. Humans as a species are thus classified as Homo sapiens. The first letter of the first name, the genus, is always capitalized, while that of the second is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Conventionally, all names of genera and lower taxa are always italicised, while family names and higher taxa are printed in plain text. Species can be divided into a further rank, giving rise to a trinomial name for a subspecies (trinomenfor animals,ternary namefor plants).

Biologists, when using a name of a species, usually also give the authority and date of the species description. Thus zoologists will give the name of a particular sea snail species as: Patella vulgataLinnaeus, 1758. The name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that described the species; 1758 is the date of the publication in which the original description can be found, in this case the bookSystema Naturae.

History

The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedishbotanist and physicianCarl von Linné also known by his Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus attempted to describe the entire known natural world, giving every species (mineral, plant, or animal) a two-part name. This was an improvement over descriptive names that involved a whole descriptive phrase comprising numerous words. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms had existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years earlier.

Value

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:

  • Clarity. It avoids the confusions that can be created when attempting to use common names to refer to a species. Common names often differ even from one part of a country to another part, and certainly vary from one country to another. In contrast, the scientific name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding confusion and difficulties of translation.
  • Stability. The procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. Even though such stability as exists is far from absolute, it is still advantageous. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.

Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy).

Derivation

The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (often a naturalist), a name from the local language etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including in-jokes and puns. However, names are always treated gra

Vascular plant

Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those plants that have lignifiedtissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. Vascular plants include the ferns, clubmosses, flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms. Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta and Tracheobionta, but neither name is very widely used.

Characteristics

Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:

  1. Vascular plants have vascular tissues, which circulate resources through the plant. This feature allows vascular plants to evolve to a larger size than non-vascular plants, which lack these specialized conducting tissues and are therefore restricted to relatively small sizes.
  2. In vascular plants, the principal generation phase is the sporophyte, which is usuallydiploid with two sets of chromosomes per cell. Only the germ cells and gametophytes are haploid. By contrast, the principal generation phase in non-vascular plants is usually the gametophyte, which ishaploid with one set of chromosomes per cell. In these plants, generally only the spore stalk and capsule are diploid.

One possible mechanism for the presumed switch from emphasis on the haploid generation to emphasis on the diploid generation is the greater efficiency in spore dispersal with more complex diploid structures. In other words, elaboration of the spore stalk enabled the production of more spore and the ability to release it higher and to broadcast it farther. Such developments may include more photosynthetic area for the spore-bearing structure, the ability to grow independent roots, woody structure for support, and more branching.

Water transport happens in either xylem or phloem: xylem carries water and inorganic solutes upward toward the leaves from the roots, while phloem carries organic solutes throughout the plant. Group of plants having lignified conducting tissue (xylem vessels or tracheids).

Phylogeny

A proposed phylogeny of the vascular plants after Kenrick and Crane is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al.

This phylogeny is supported by several molecular studies. Other researchers state that taking fossils into account leads to different conclusions, for example that the ferns (Pteridophyta) are not monophyletic.

Nutrient distribution

Nutrients and water from the soil and the organic compounds produced in leaves are distributed to specific areas in the plant through the xylem and phloem. The xylem draws water and nutrients up from the roots to the upper sections of the plant's body, and the phloem conducts other materials, such as the sucrose produced during photosynthesis, which gives the plant energy to keep growing and seeding.

The xylem consists of tracheids, which are dead hard-walled hollow cells arranged to form tiny tubes to function in water transport. A tracheid cell wall usually contains the polymer lignin. The phloem however consists of living cells called sieve-tube members. Between the sieve-tube members are sieve plates, which have pores to allow molecules to pass through. Sieve-tube members lack such organs as nuclei or ribosomes, but cells next to them, the companion cells, function to keep the sieve-tube members alive.

The movement of nutrients, water and sugars is affected by transpiration, conduction and absorption of water.

The most abundant compound in all plants, as in all life, is water which serves an important role in the various processes taking place. Transpiration is the main process a plant can call upon to move compounds within its tissues. The basic minerals and nutrients a plant is composed of remain, generally, within the plant. Water is constantly lost from the plant through its stomata to the atmosphere.

Water is transpired from the plants leaves via stomata, carried there via leaf veins and vascular bundles within the plants cambium layer. The movement of water out of the leaf stomata creates, when the leaves are considered collectively, a transpiration pull. The pull is created through water surface tension within the plant cells. The draw of water upwards is assisted by the movement of water into the roots via osmosis. This process also assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil as soluble salts, a process known as absorption. Surprisingly, the movement of water upwards requires very little or no energy from the plant. Hydrogen bonds exist between watermolecules, causing them to line up; as the molecules at the top of the plant evaporate, each pulls the next one up to replace it, which in turn pulls on the next one in line.

Absorption

Xylem vessels allow the movement of water and nutrients upwards towards the shoots and From Yahoo Answers

Question:i forgot my biology book at school and this is this is the one un answered question i have. if i can remember right it starts with a "ch"? but i could be mistaken

Answers:Green Algae " Pediastrum boryanum" Pediastrum boryanum is one of many species of tiny plants that are called "green algae." Actually, any species in the Chlorophyta Division (phylum) is called green algae. Green Algae come in many different shapes and sizes. Pediastrum boryanum is the scientific name of one green algae species. To see one Pediastrum boryanum you will need a microscope. If many Pediastrum boryanum are together, probably with other species of algae as well, they will look like green slime in the water.

Question:i need scientific along with general names of 5 medicinal plants 5 wild animals 5 domestic animals 5 flowering plants 5 non flowering plants please help i really hav no time to search right now as i hav a pile of h.w tankx

Answers:We wil not do your homework. Learn on your own. Knowledge is power.

Question:I really need to know, and I've asked many people myself, but to no avail. If it is a mixture of algae, what are the different types of algae? thanks :D

Answers:Green spot algae (Coleochaete orbicularis) Source: http://fins.actwin.com/aquatic-plants/month.200211/msg00690.html Types of Algae: Note this seems to concentrate on aquarium algae. http://www.otocinclus.com/articles/algae.html

Question:1.champagne tree 2.Indian almond tree 3.caterpillar 4.jackfruit 5.gumamela 6.birds of paradise 7.stairway to heaven 8.bangka-bangkaan 9.euphorbia 10.bettlenut 11.boungainvilla 12.guava 13.malunggay 14.ipil-ipil 15.moss 16.singsingpare 17.chico 18.rosal 19.mango tree 20.atis 21.santan 22.calamansi 23.sili 24.anahaw 25.mushroom 26.pansit-pansitan 27.banana tree 28.kamias (ginger lily) 29.coconut 30.grasses 31.makahiya 32.talahib 33.narra 34.snake 35.kapok 36.santol 37.ferns 38.termites 39.lovebirds 40.butterfly 41.eucalyptus 42.bird's nest 43.maya 44.rose 45.arateles 46.ants. those are plants and animals from the philippines.. please answer ...

Answers:That's not an easy question. 'Caterpillar,' 'ferns' and 'termites' are not words that point to only on species. For example, there are more than 500 different Eucalypts . . . You need to be a bit more specific. Otherwise, 'Plantae' and 'Animalia' covers them all. In general it is much easier to go from a specific scientific name to a common name than the reverse as common names often cover very different organisms in different regions.