Different Modes of Nutrition in Animals Examples





It is always essential to know the basics of different modes of nutrition in all
living organisms in order to understand the relationship between plants and animals and the related energy flow within the ecosystem.
The modes of nutrition in animals revolve around Holozoic, Parasitic, and Saprophytic
These three types of nutrition is basically the sub category of heterotrophic mode of nutrition. 
Heterotrophic mode of nutrition is further classified into these three types based on the pattern and class of food that is taken inside.
Let us understand these topics in detail.

Holozoic as the word suggests means the whole of animal and in this type the organism takes in the entire organic food and this can be in the form of whole body part, part of body organ or even whole grains or mix of grains.
By taking in the entire body parts the animal breaks these big macro molecules into simpler forms by means different digestive enzymes. Once the big molecules are broken down it is absorbed into the body cells of the organisms.
The steps that are followed for these breaking down and absorbing into the body cells are as follows: ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
We humans and other animals fall under this category of nutrition.

The second in line of nutrition modes is saprophytic.
In saprophytic mode of nutrition the organism draws the required amount of food from the rotten parts of dead organisms, rotten or food leftovers and even fallen leaves. 
In this kind of nutrition the process is started from half or fully broken down macro molecules and is a kind of extra-cellular digestion which is most often carried out with through active transportation. 
This active transportation is basically undertaken with the help of endocytosis. 
The best examples of saprophytic mode of nutrition would be fungis and bacterias.

The last of the type of nutrition prevalent in animals is parasitic mode.
In parasitic mode of nutrition the organism derives the required food from the body of another organism.
The organism which is deriving the food from another is termed the parasite while the other as its host.
The parasite again could be of two distinct types, one which lives inside the host and the other which lives outside but is as dangerous.
The internal parasites usually infest and multiply inside the body cavity and most of the times are life threatening while the ones which lives outside but could play the role of vectors in spreading life threatening diseases.
Most common of internal parasites are worms or types of annelids while the external ones may include mostly fleas and insects as well as worms (leech).
 

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From Wikipedia

Animal nutrition

There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water.

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.

The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in joules or calories (sometimes called "kilocalories" and on other rare occasions written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), seems also to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acidmonomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.

Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.

Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances such as toxins or various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in too large amounts.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.

Fat

A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.

Many studies have shown that unsaturated fats, particularly monounsaturated fats, are best i

Mode (statistics)

In statistics, the mode is the value that occurs most frequently in a data set or a probability distribution. In some fields, notably education, sample data are often called scores, and the sample mode is known as the modal score.

Like the statistical mean and the median, the mode is a way of capturing important information about a random variable or a population in a single quantity. The mode is in general different from the mean and median, and may be very different for strongly skewed distributions.

The mode is not necessarily unique, since the same maximum frequency may be attained at different values. The most ambiguous case occurs in uniform distributions, wherein all values are equally likely.

Mode of a probability distribution

The mode of a discrete probability distribution is the value x at which its probability mass function takes its maximum value. In other words, it is the value that is most likely to be sampled.

The mode of a continuous probability distribution is the value x at which its probability density function attains its maximum value, so, informally speaking, the mode is at the peak.

As noted above, the mode is not necessarily unique, since the probability mass function or probability density function may achieve its maximum value at several points x1, x2, etc.

The above definition tells us that only global maxima are modes. Slightly confusingly, when a probability density function has multiple local maxima it is common to refer to all of the local maxima as modes of the distribution. Such a continuous distribution is called multimodal (as opposed to unimodal).

In symmetric unimodal distributions, such as the normal (or Gaussian) distribution (the distribution whose density function, when graphed, gives the famous "bell curve"), the mean (if defined), median and mode all coincide. For samples, if it is known that they are drawn from a symmetric distribution, the sample mean can be used as an estimate of the population mode.

Mode of a sample

The mode of a data sample is the element that occurs most often in the collection. For example, the mode of the sample [1, 3, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 12, 12, 17] is 6. Given the list of data [1, 1, 2, 4, 4] the mode is not unique - the dataset may be said to be bimodal, while a set with more than two modes may be described as multimodal.

For a sample from a continuous distribution, such as [0.935..., 1.211..., 2.430..., 3.668..., 3.874...], the concept is unusable in its raw form, since each value will occur precisely once. The usual practice is to discretize the data by assigning frequency values to intervals of equal distance, as for making a histogram, effectively replacing the values by the midpoints of the intervals they are assigned to. The mode is then the value where the histogram reaches its peak. For small or middle-sized samples the outcome of this procedure is sensitive to the choice of interval width if chosen too narrow or too wide; typically one should have a sizable fraction of the data concentrated in a relatively small number of intervals (5 to 10), while the fraction of the data falling outside these intervals is also sizable. An alternate approach is kernel density estimation, which essentially blurs point samples to produce a continuous estimate of the probability density function which can provide an estimate of the mode.

The following MATLAB code example computes the mode of a sample:

X = sort(x); indices = find(diff([X; realmax]) > 0); % indices where repeated values change [modeL,i] = max (diff([0; indices])); % longest persistence length of repeated values mode = X(indices(i));

The algorithm requires as a first step to sort the sample in ascending order. It then computes the discrete derivative of the sorted list, and finds the indices where this derivative is positive. Next it computes the discrete derivative of this set of indices, locating the maximum of this derivative of indices, and finally evaluates the sorted sample at the point where that maximum occurs, which corresponds to the last member of the stretch of repeated values.

Comparison of mean, median and mode

When do these measures make sense?

Unlike mean and median, the concept of mode also makes sense for "nominal data" (i.e., not consisting of numerical values). For example, taking a sample of Korean family names, one might find that "Kim" occurs more often than any other name. Then "Kim" would be the mode of the sample. In any voting system where a plurality determines victory, a single modal value determines the victor, while a multi-modal outcome would require some tie-breaking procedure to take place.

Unlike median, the concept of mean makes sense for any random variable assuming values from a vector space, including the real numbers (a one-dimensional vector space) and the integers (which can be considered embedded in the reals). For example, a distribution of points in the plane will typically have a mean and a mode, but the concept of median does not apply. The median makes sense when there is a linear order on the possible values. Generalizations of the concept of median to higher-dimensi


From Yahoo Answers

Question:I have been asked to do a 30-minute presentation on nutrition or eating well for a group of teachers. I'm used to appealing to students, not adults. What would be a good topic? They probably already know about the food pyramid and how to read labels. I don't want to talk down to them but also want to make it interesting with a couple of activities. Any ideas?

Answers:They may read labels, but be sure to tell them not to believe everything in the ads. Advertisements are there to draw attention, not to inform people so advice these teachers to read the labels properly before buying food products. Prepare some simple handouts on the food pyramid for them. Sure, most people have some idea of what it looks like, but if they have a copy for themselves they're more likely to read it properly and start following it. Have you considered talking about the health effects of different foods and food additives? For example, giving a bit of a primer on why too much salt is unhealthy shouldn't be seen as talking down, just being informative. As opposed to just telling them to follow instructions like you would do with kids, explain why they should do listen to you. That ought to give a better response. I'm not sure activities are a good idea - having been to a talk similar to yours lately (I'm a medical student) they tend to be distracting and people often digress. Your audience is a bunch of teachers, so I don't think giving 30 minutes of attention to you is asking much. You won't need an activity to break things up.

Question:There's a follow-up question after this: What is the comparison and contrast between the structures, nutrition and reproduction of the 5 kingdoms ( Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae)? Please reply A.S.A.P. Thanks for helping.

Answers:The five-kingdom classification of organisms Nomenclature: Naming of organisms Binomial: Biological name of an organism Genus species Taxon: Set of organisms within a category / Taxonomy / Study of biological classification Different levels of taxons: SPECIES, GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM, KINGDOM Most number of species on right Most similar organisms on left Unicellular: Single cell; Colonial: Groups of cells; Multicellular: Many cells Autotrophs produce energy from inorganic sources Phototrophs from photosynthesis/sunlight Chemotrophs from simple inorganic (oxidative) processes Heterotrophs digest and absorb organic molecules Prokaryotae (prokaryotes) Cell structure: Prokaryotes, unicellular Prokaryotes lack cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotes Cell wall: murein Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis), aerobic heterotrophs Divide by binary fission, not by mitosis 10 m in size (bacterial cell, filaments of blue-green bacteria) Mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the root of legumes / symbiotic Protoctista (protoctists) Cell structure: eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular Cell wall: (sometimes) polysaccharide Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic Placed in this category by exclusion / cannot be placed in any other kingdom Slime moulds / fungi characteristics Protozoa / heterotrophic and ingest food Algae / photosynthesis 10 m (amoeba) - 1m (Laminaria / large brown alga) Fungi Cell structure: eukaryotes, multicellular and unicellular (yeast) Cell wall: chitin Nutrition: heterotrophic / saprotrophic decomposers or parasitic Genus Penicillium Body of a fungus is composed of thin filaments called hyphae / form a mycelium Secret enzymes / external digestion / absorbs resulting nutrients Erect hyphae that grow upwards from the mycelium carry their reproductive spores Chains of spores on the erect hyphae / coloured mould visible on stored food Break down organic matter Plantae (plants) Cell structure: only multicellular, eukaryotic; large vacuoles Cell wall: cellulose Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthetic) Growth is restricted to meristems (layers/patches of dividing cells) Non-motile; adapted to land / strong tissues, leave gas exchange system, waterproofed Eg mosses, ferns, conifers, angiosperms (flowering plants) Plant kingdom has two different types of adults in their life cycle Gametophytes, hidden in plant / sexual reproduction forms multicellular zygotes Sporophytes, what we call plant / asexual reproduction to form spores that germinate into gametophytes Gametophyte (n) gamete (n) fertilisation zygote (2n) mitosis sporophyte (2n) meiosis spore (n) mitosis gametophyte (n) Animalia (humans, animals) Cell structure: eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell wall Develop form a blastocyst / embryo Have nervous and hormonal control systems No cell wall! Nutrition: heterotrophic, involving a digestive system Are motile and grow throughout tissues (no mersitems)

Question:Milton uses spider and howler monkeys as examples of two different strategiesthat monkeys use to cope with the nutritional challenges of life in the trees. Describe these two strategies and adaptations invovled. Give an example of other non-primate animals that use similar strategies.

Answers:Non-primates are animals that are not monkey-like or ape-like. Examples of tree-dwelling non-primates might be the fox squirrel and the three-toed sloth.

Question:kingdom archae.. kingdom plantae..kingdom eubacteria, kingdom protista, kingdom fungi, and kingdom animalia.. i do understand all of those, but still quite confused on how each animal kingdom (cells .. maybe) is different from each other.. might've been physical features? number of cells? or any other.. i'd like to know everybody's answer.. who knows.. i might've use it in test.. i'd like to ask some.. help me out ok.. thanks!!

Answers:Ha ha. Kingdom Archeae are prokaryotes. This means they have no nucleus and no organelles, and are single celled organisms. Kingdom Eubacteria are Eukaryotes. These are cells like ours - With organelles and nucleii. Once again, they are single celled organisms. Kingdom Plantae. These are the plants - I'm pretty sure you know what they look like. Multicellular organisms. Kingdom Animalia. These are the animals. Again, it's fairly obvious what they look like. Multicellular organisms. Kingdom Fungi. These are funguses. They are the mushrooms, the molds, etc... Multicellular organisms. Kingdom Protists. This one's a little tougher - Protsists are usually single celled eukaryotes, however they can also be multicellular - But they won't form specialied tissues. They are often but not always photosynthetic. An example is plankton.

From Youtube

Universal Animal Pak Sports Nutrition Supplement. :bit.ly Boasting of the 44 different mineral and substance components that it has, the Universal Animal Pak Sports Nutrition Supplement is a product that promises to help you increase your muscle mass and more. It also promises to increase your endurance, increase metabolic rate, and give your extra energy. This will be perfect for use of those who are working out. Not only will they need its energy giving effects but at the same time, your exercise will not produce significant results in terms of your muscle mass if you are just going to leave it at that. Some of the 44 packets that the Universal Animal Pak Sports Nutrition Supplement has will include proteins, vitamins and other lyophilized amino acids. This is usually used before workouts to help you have more energy while you workout. But, its other effects will also be beneficial in your workout. Before your workout, at least thirty minutes after you have had your meal, you can take a packet with a glass of water. After that, you also need to increase your oral fluid intake while you are using this dietary supplement. Use a maximum of 2 packets in a day. This will be enough to give you results that you need. The Universal Animal Pak Sports Nutrition Supplement says that is it free from sugars as well as artificial preservatives and artificial colors. This can be helpful as you need to avoid things that may be detrimental to your health. bit.ly

Muscle Building Nutrition - Part 1 B :www.LeeHayward.com I'm going to break down the elements that make up a good muscle building meal. First off you need to consume a high protein intake. The general rule of 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight daily is a good place to start. I know there is a lot of controversy over protein intake, but the bottom line is I've never met a single person yet who was big and muscular who did not consume a high protein diet. Every single one of your meals needs to have a good source of protein. You should space your protein intake out equally over 6 small meals per day. You don't have to be 100% spot on with this, but try your best to space your protein intake out so that you provide your body with a continuous supply of amino acids to help support muscle growth. This is how you would calculate out how much protein you should strive to eat for each meal. First you need to consume at least 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight daily. So for example if you weigh 175 lbs. then you should be eating at least 175 grams of protein per day. 175 grams of protein divided up over the course of 6 meals works out to approx. 30 grams of protein per meal. The best sources of protein are lean animal proteins such as Skinless Chicken Skinless Turkey Lean cuts of Beef, Pork, Lamb, etc. All kinds of Fish Eggs & Egg whites Dairy products like milk & cottage cheese These foods are complete proteins because they contain all of the essential amino acids needed for muscle growth. Many ...