difference between stem and root

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From Wikipedia

Root (linguistics)

The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family (root is then called base word), which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. Content words in nearly all languages contain, and may consist only of, root morphemes. However,sometimes the term "root" is also used to describe the word minus its inflectional endings, but with its lexical endings in place. For example, chatters has the inflectional root or lemmachatter, but the lexical root chat. Inflectional roots are often called stems, and a root in the stricter sense may be thought of as a monomorphemic stem.

The traditional definition allows roots to be either free morphemes or bound morphemes. Root morphemes are essential for affixation and compounds. However, in polysynthetic languages with very high levels of inflectional morphology, the term "root" is generally synonymous with "free morpheme". Many such languages have a very restricted number of morphemes that can stand alone as a word: Yup'ik, for instance, has no more than two thousand.

The root of a word is a unit of meaning (morpheme) and, as such, it is an abstraction, though it can usually be represented in writing as a word would be. For example, it can be said that the root of the English verb form running is run, or the root of the Spanish superlative adjective amplísimo is ampl-, since those words are clearly derived from the root forms by simple suffixes that do not alter the roots in any way. In particular, English has very little inflection, and hence a tendency to have words that are identical to their roots. But more complicated inflection, as well as other processes, can obscure the root; for example, the root of mice is mouse(still a valid word), and the root of interrupt is, arguably, rupt, which is not a word in English and only appears in derivational forms (such as disrupt, corrupt, rupture, etc.). The root rupt is written as if it were a word, but it's not.

This distinction between the word as a unit of speech and the root as a unit of meaning is even more important in the case of languages where roots have many different forms when used in actual words, as is the case in Semitic languages. In these, roots are formed by consonants alone, and different words (belonging to different parts of speech) are derived from the same root by inserting vowels. For example, in Hebrew, the root gdl represents the idea of largeness, and from it we have g'adol and gdola (masculine and feminine forms of the adjective "big"), gadal "he grew", higdil "he magnified" and magdelet "magnifier", along with many other words such as godel "size" and migdal "tower".

Secondary roots

Consider the Arabic language:

  • مقام [mqam] meaning 'locality' from مكان [mkan] meaning 'place.'
  • مركز [mrkz] or [markaza] meaning ‘centralized (masculine, singular)’, from [markaz] ‘centre’, from [rakaza] ‘plant into the earth, stick up (a lance)’ ( ركز | rkz).
  • أرجح [rjh] or [ta'arjaħa] meaning ‘oscillated (masculine, singular)’, from ['urju:ħa] ‘swing (n)’, from [rajaħa] ‘weighed down, preponderated (masculine, singular)’ ( رجح | rjħ).
  • محور [mhwr] or [tamaħwara] meaning ‘centred, focused (masculine, singular)’, from [mihwar] meaning ‘axis’, from [ħa:ra] ‘turned (masculine, singular)’ (حور | hwr).
  • مسخر [msxr], تمسخر [tamasxara] meaning ‘mocked, made fun (masculine, singular)', from مسخرة [masxara] meaning ‘mockery’, from سخر [saxira] ‘mocked (masculine, singular)’ (derived from سخر[sxr])." Similar cases may be found in other semetic languages such as Hebrew, Syriac, Aramaic, Maltese language and to a lesser extent Amharic.

"Similar cases occur in Hebrew, e.om Israeli Hebrewמקמ √mqm ‘locate’, which derives from Biblical Hebrewמקו� måqom‘place’, whose root is קומ √qwm ‘stand’. A recent example introduced by the Academy of the Hebrew Language is מדרוג midrúg‘rating’, from מדרג midrág, whose root is דרג √drg ‘grade’."

According to Ghil'ad Zuckermann, "this process is morphologically similar to the production of frequentative (iterative) verbs in Latin, for example:

  • iactito‘to toss about’ derives from iacto‘to boast of, keep bringing up, harass, disturb, throw, cast, fling away’, which in turn derives from iacio‘to throw, cast’ (whose past participle is iactus).
  • scriptito‘to write often, compose’ is based on scribo‘to write’ (<‘to draw lines, engrave with a sharp-pointed instrument’).
  • dicto‘to say often, repeat’ is from dico‘to indicate, say, speak, tell’.
  • clamito‘to cry loudly/often, shout violently’ derives from clamo‘call, shout’."

"Consider also Rabbini


From Yahoo Answers

Question:

Answers:By "base" word, do you mean base verb? I'll assume you do, and if I'm wrong, well you're getting what you pay for, right? A "base" verb means a verb as it appears in the dictionary, without modification. No -ed, or -s is added; it is in no tense. They are used most commonly after modals: "He should express himself more clearly." "Express" is a base verb. It doesn't have the -es ending it would have without the modal "He expresses himself clearly" A root word (or stem) is the original Latin (usually), Greek, or German word from which the English word is derived. For example: autobiography contains a prefix "auto-", which means "self"; the root "bio" which means "life", and "graph", which means "writing" So base verbs are always verbs, and they are the pure verb, as written in the dictionary. Root words are only *part* of an English word, and they have meaning in an older language.

Question:adventitious roots r in pteridophytes nd roots r in gymnosperms and angiosperms.........

Answers:Adventitious roots are also found in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms . A root or true root or tap root is the one that develops from the embryonic root primordia , such as a radicle in bean seed . Adventitious roots ( Literally speaking additional roots) develop from ANY OTHER part of a plant . Now click on the link below to see a developing fern plant . " A " is the new sporophyte and " B " is the prothallus . The black worm like part that is moving away from the main body is the true root of fern . Sadly enough it will not function for long and its position will be taken up by adventitious roots that will be developing later on . Root like, but minute threads that you see are the rhizoids of the prothallus ( Do not confuse them with advetitious roots ) Now click the link == http://web.gccaz.edu/~lsola/NonFlwr/thalspo.jpg Another link = http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/webb/BOT311/FERNS/FernSporoGameto400.jpg http://www.bargainmicroscopes.com/images/specimennew/005aab01-005abc4xx-fern-prothallia-sporangia-w.m.jpg Thank you !

Question:i dont really get the difference between equal roots, real roots and x-intercept. dont they all cut through the x-axis...im really confused. oh do u find them the same way u find x-intercepts? u make the equation equal zero and solve, right? btw this is a grade 12 advanced functions, if it makes any difference..

Answers:An "x-intercept" of a graph is just the value of x when it crosses the x-axis. When you're dealing with quadratic equations in the form of y = ax^2 + bx + c, then yes, the x-intercept is the same as finding the roots of the equation ax^2 + bx + c = 0. "Equal roots" mean that you really only have one root. For example, you can take x^2 - 2x + 1 = 0 and factor it to get (x-1)(x-1) = 0. That means the first term is 0 or the second term is 0, so either x=1 or x=1. Again, you really only have one root here: 1. But in this situation you can call it a "repeating root" or "equal roots". "Real roots" simply mean that you HAVE roots. This is used to distinguish it from a concept called "imaginary roots", which is covered in Algebra II. In the last example, we had real roots. But x^2 + 1 = 0 has "no real roots", because it has no (real) solutions. And no, not all quadratic equations have graphs that cross the x-axis. Quadratic equations graph as parabolas. You can draw a parabola whose vertex is above the x-axis and opens upward, or whose vertex is below the x-axis and opens downward. Neither one ever touches the x-axis.

Question:

Answers:Fiberous roots are in the ground to anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients. They are numerous and thin. Turf grass is a good example. Aerial roots are suspended in the air and do not go into the soil. The best example of that is an orchid. They normally sit in the fork of a tree in the rainforset many feet from the ground and absorb water directly from the air. This explains why orchids are in the humid rainforests but not in deserts.

From Youtube

What's the difference between embyonic and adult stem cells? :A 10 minute discussion on the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells. Focus is on the use of mesenchymal stem cells.

Irv Weissman: Differences between Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells :The simple term "stem cell" actually refers to many different types of cells. The tissue-specific stem cells, or adult stem cells, replenish tissues throughout our lives. Embryonic stem cells exist only briefly in early development before tissues begin to form. Irv Weissman discovered the first tissue stem cells and has helped develop new treatments for disease based on these cells. Weissman has CIRM grant to push embryonic stem cells to form blood and heart muscle stem cells, which could be powerful tools for treating diseases of the heart or blood system. Weissman is Director of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Virginia & DK Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation in Cancer Research, and Professor of Developmental Biology at the Stanford University School of Medicine.