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Saturation (chemistry)

In chemistry, saturation has six different meanings, all based on reaching a maximum capacity

  1. In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of it will appear as a precipitate. This point of maximum concentration, the saturation point, depends on the temperature of the liquid as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved. This can be used in the process of recrystallisation to purify a chemical: it is dissolved to the point of saturation in hot solvent, then as the solvent cools and the solubility decreases, excess solute precipitates. Impurities, being present in much lower concentration, do not saturate the solvent and so remain dissolved in the liquid. If a change in conditions (e.g. cooling) means that the concentration is actually higher than the saturation point, the solution has become supersaturated.
  2. In physical chemistry, when referring to surface processes, saturation denotes the degree of which a binding site is fully occupied. For example, base saturation refers to the fraction of exchangeable cations that are base cations. Similarly, in environmental soil science, nitrogen saturation means that an ecosystem, such as a soil, cannot store any more nitrogen.
  3. In organic chemistry, a saturated compound has no double or triple bonds. In saturated linear hydrocarbons, every carbon atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms, except those at the ends of the chain, which bear three hydrogen atoms. In the case of saturated methane, four hydrogen atoms are attached to the single, central carbon atom. Of simple hydrocarbons, alkanes are saturated, and alkenes are unsaturated. The degree of unsaturation specifies the amount of hydrogen that a compound can bind. The term is applied similarly to the fatty acid constituents of lipids, where the fat is described as saturated or unsaturated, depending on whether the constituent fatty acids contain carbon-carbon double bonds. Unsaturated is used when any carbon structure contains double or occasionally triple bonds. Many vegetable oils contain fatty acids with one (monounsaturated) or more (polyunsaturated) double bonds in them. The bromine number is an index of unsaturation.
  4. In organometallic chemistry, an unsaturated complex has fewer than 18 valence electrons and thus is susceptible to oxidative addition or coordination of an additional ligand. Unsaturation is characteristic of many catalysts because it is usually a requirement for substrate activation.
  5. In biochemistry, the term saturation refers to the fraction of total protein binding sites that are occupied at any given time.
  6. In thermodynamics, steam is considered to be saturated if the steam is at sufficient temperature to no longer be in equilibrium with liquid water. At the saturation temperature for a given pressure, cooling the steam will result in condensation and heating steam further will result in superheated steam. The quality (fraction of fluid in the vapor phase) of the steam at such a temperature and pressure is 1.

Saturated and unsaturated compounds

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has of a chain of carbonatoms linked together by single bonds and has hydrogen atoms filling all of the other bonding orbitals of the carbon atoms. Alkanes are an example of saturated compounds. An unsaturated compound is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively. Saturated and unsaturated compounds need not consist only of a carbon atom chain. They can have functional groups, as well. It is in this sense that fatty acids are classified as saturated or unsaturated. The amount of unsaturation of a fatty acid can be determined by finding its iodine number.

In a chain of carbons, such as a fatty acid, a double or triple bond will cause a kink in the chain. These kinks have macro-structural implications. Unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temperature, rather than solid, due to the kinks in the chain. The kinks prevent the molecules from packing closely together to form a solid. These fats are called oils and are present in fish and plants.

In other unsaturated hydrocarbons, the double bond between two carbons prevents rotation of the atoms about the bond, locking them into specific structural formations. When attached atoms occupy similar positions on each carbon, they are referred to as "cis", and when they are on opposite sides, they are called "trans". Most natural hydrocarbons exist in the cis state, but artificially manufactured hydrocarbons are trans. The body lacks the enzymes to properly break down the trans configuration. This is why trans fats are viewed as dangerous and unhealthy, as they tend to build up. Unsaturated compounds of the two formations are classified as geometric isomers of one another.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:both have saturated in them, i know saturated fats are not a good source but what about saturated hydrocarbon, are they a good source? if vegtable oil is a mixture of organic compounds and does not dissolve in water, does it mean that the v. oil is unsaturated or saturated. if saturated fats are not good for health, why are the vegetable oils which are unsaturated fats convert into saturated fats such as margarine. does this have anything to do with saturated hydrocarbon?

Answers:Saturated hydrocarbons are any hydrocarbon that contains the maximum amount of hydrogen available. A Saturated fat is more specific as it has to be a LONG carbon chain, and has glycerol endings. For example: Stearic acid is considered a saturated fat, but not a saturated hydrocarbon because stearic acid contains a carboxylic tail (a hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen). Ethane is considered a saturated hydrocarbon, but not a saturated fat, because it is only two carbons long. To answer your other questions: Any oil will not dissolve in water--it doesn't matter if it is saturated or unsaturated. However, since unsaturated fats are generally liquid at room temperature, it forms an immiscible layer with water (if you mix water and vegetable oil, you will see two layers). Unsaturated fats generally are liquid form at room temperature, while saturated fats are solid at room temperature. Most people want a healthy alternative to butter (saturated fat) that they can spread on bread and stuff, so a partially-saturated fat (margarine) will be healthier, and will allow you to spread on bread. However, I've seen people dip bread in olive oil and stuff.

Question:what are the main differences between: alkanes and alkenes saturated and unsaturated fats please don't write a one word answer, a whole essay and don't just post a web link. all i want to know is differences like which ones have double bonds, which ones more reactive etc... thanks for the short answer - im kinda stressed at the moment.

Answers:Alkanes and Alkenes The difference between an alkane and an alkene is that- alkanes are made up of chains of carbon atoms with SINGLE COVALENT BONDS, and alkenes have DOUBLE COVALENT BONDS between the carbon atoms saturated and unsaturated fats Saturated fats are a combination of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, that maxed out their hydrogen capacity. Unsaturated fats can still absorb hydrogen. saturated fat are a solid at room's temperature (such as butter) while unsaturated fat are a liquid. Unsaturated fats are considered healthy, they help rebuild and produce cells in the body. Saturated fats, in overconsumption can raise the level of cholesterol. Hoped it helped and sorry it was a bit long

Question:What would you do to change: a saturated solid/liquid solution to an unsaturated solution? a saturated gas/liquid solution to an unsaturated solution?

Answers:-heat the solution (increasing temperature increases solubility) -stir the mixture - crush the solids in the mixture to increase surface area to dissolve more hope this helps!

Question:Also, an example of a food that contains each. Links are helpful. Thank you! 10 pts. best answer.

Answers:The hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids of saturated fatty acids are all saturated (no double bonds between the Cs eg no C = C.). In unsaturated fatty acids there are C=C bonds in the tails.

From Youtube

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