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From Wikipedia

Human lung

The human lungs are the organs of respiration in humans. Humans have two lungs, with the left being divided into two lobes and the right into three lobes. Together, the lungs contain approximately () of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli, having a total surface area of about () in adults — roughly the same area as one side of a tennis court. Furthermore, if all of the capillaries that surround the alveoli were unwound and laid end to end, they would extend for about (). Each lung weighs 2.5 pounds, therefore making the entire organ about 5 pounds.

The conducting zone contains the trachea, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the terminal bronchioles The respiratory zone contains the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts, and the alveoli. The conducting zone and the respiratory stuffers (but not the alveoli) are made up of airways. The conducting zone has no gas exchange with the blood, and is reinforced with cartilage in order to hold open the airways. The conducting zone warms the air to 37 degrees Celsius and humidifies the air. It also cleanses the air by removing particles via cilia located on the walls of all the passageways. The lungs are surrounded by the rib cage. The respiratory zone is the site ofgas exchange with blood.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the parietal pleura, lining the inner wall of the thoracic cage, and the visceral pleura lining the lungs.

The lungparenchymais strictly used to refer solely toalveolar tissue with respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles. However, it often includes any form of lung tissue, also including bronchioles, bronchi, blood vessels and lung interstitium.

Physiology

Regarding lung volumes, total lung capacity (TLC) includes inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. The total lung capacity depends on the person's age, height, weight, sex, and normally ranges between 4,000 and 6,000 cm3 (4 to 6 L). For example, females tend to have a 20–25% lower capacity than males. Tall people tend to have a larger total lung capacity than shorter people. Smokers have a lower capacity than nonsmokers. Lung capacity is also affected by altitude. People who are born and live at sea level will have a smaller lung capacity than people who spend their lives at a high altitude. In addition to the total lung capacity, one also measures the tidal volume, the volume breathed in with an average breath, which is about 500 cm3. For a detailed discussion of the various lung volumes, see the article on lung volumes.

Typical resting adult respiratory rates are 10–20 breaths per minute with 1/3 of the breath time in inhalation.

Human lungs are to a certain extent 'overbuilt' and have a tremendous reserve volume as compared to the oxygen exchange requirements when at rest. This is the reason that individuals can smoke for years without having a noticeable decrease in lung function while still or moving slowly; in situations like these only a small portion of the lungs are actually perfused with blood for gas exchange. As oxygen requirements increase due to exercise, a greater volume of the lungs is perfused, allowing the body to reach its CO2/O2 exchange requirements.

An average human breathes around 11,000 litres of air (21% of which consists of oxygen) in one day.

Mucus-secreting cells, cells with tiny hairs called cilia or Cilium, and cells from the immune syste


From Yahoo Answers

Question:So, I got this X-ray done on Thursday and on Friday afternoon the radiology dept called me to tell me to follow up immediately with the pulmonologist regarding this outcome. This was ordered due to feeling of being out of breath constantly and chest pain. However, tis outcome seems like I just have to pass some air and I'll be fine. Anyone have anything similar or can shed some light on this? I'll be talking with the doc tomorrow, but I'm curious. I also tried to search online but every hit is a scholarly med article. Thanks in advance! Thanks for the informative answer. Just to answer your questions. I have had this problem for about a month. My GI tract has been perfectly normal so that's why I find it odd that this is the problem. It's been gradually getting worse for the past few weeks. Hopefully the pulmonologist will have some answers for me. I just hope it does not end in a colonoscopy because I don't want to go through that.

Answers:When the x ray was taken apparently you had a lot of gas. This displacement pushed up on the diaphragm and and therefore the left lung making it painful,because you were squeezing the diaphragm between your intestine and your lung and with that much gas it has to be painful. Your shortness of breath was due to not being able to expand your left lung base and possibly atlectasis developing. Your assessment is probably correct. Just pass some gas and reexpand that part of your lung and you'll be fine. But I imagine if the x ray was done on thurs. or Fri. that gas should be gone by now. Are you still feeling the pain? And are you still short of breath. Is it getting worse? If you are getting worse you may nave a bowel obstruction which really does need to be treated right away. Have you had a BM since then? Anything with simethicone in it would help. God bless.

Question:Say I add 4:00 to 6:00 = 2:00 (amount of distance between the two in military time). It's in a spreadsheet that was made for that the formula just got deleted somehow. The numbers are in a table left to right. F+G=H but whats the whole formula? I'm using Windows XP and the Excel used with that if that makes any difference.

Answers:There are several ways to calculating the differences between two times. If, for example, we have a start time in cell F1 and a finish time in cell G1. If the times occur within the same day, that is they don t span midnight, we could calculate the difference in cell H3 as follows: 1) Make sure the times in the cells are entered in a standard time keeping format. The times should be in the 12-hour format (4:53 PM) or 24-hour format (16:53). 2)Select the cell you want the difference to appear in (cell H1, in our example). 3)Enter your formula (G1-F1 in our example) and press Enter. 4)Press Ctrl+1 to display the Format Cells dialog box. 5)From the Category list, select Custom; from the Type list. 6)Select hh:mm. Click OK. =G1-F1 Hours between two times with the cell formatted as "h" (4) =G1-F1 Hours and minutes between two times with the cell formatted as "h:mm" (4:53) =G1-F1 Hours, minutes, and seconds between two times with the cell formatted as "h:mm:ss" (4:53:00) =TEXT(G1-F1,"h") Hours between two times (4) =TEXT(G1-F1,"h:mm") Hours and minutes between two times (4:53) =TEXT(G1-F1,"h:mm:ss") Hours, minutes, and seconds between two times (4:53:00) Hope this helpful.

Question:I know that the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale are two shunts that alter the blood flow in the fetal heart but it appears to me that they allow oxygenated blood to mix with deoxygenated blood and I don't understand why that is. What other differences are there? Thanks!

Answers:Let's look at the fetal pig. I won't go into all the details, but remember that the fetal pig is getting it's oxygen from it's mother through it's umbilical cord, and does not use it's lungs. Normally, for mammals, the right ventricle would pump blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery (low in oxygen), and the pulmonary vein would return the blood (high in oxygen) to the left atrium. In the fetal pig, this pathway is to be avoided as the lung is collapsed and non-functional. So first, there is a hole between the right and left atrium... the foramen ovale.... that blood is shunted from the right to left atrium to avoid the lungs. The little blood that does enter the right atrium and is pumped into the pulmonary arteries is shunted by a small segment blood vessel called the ductus arteriosus into the aorta, therefore also bypassing the lungs. I leave the rest of the circulation around the heart to your own research.

Question:

Answers:virus: is acelluar, has virods and prions, they are not seen under a compound microscope (only electric microscopes) bacteria: they are single cellular, has no enclosed-membranes bounds, are ubiquitous, mainly get energy from environment, they undergo binary fission human lung cell (eukaryote): they are multi-cellular and have a nucleus, has an intracelluar enclosed-membrane bounds, get energy from environment, and go through mitosis/meiosis

From Youtube

What Side Are You? Left vs. Right Brain :if you see this going clockwise then you are right brain side user, and vice versa .. you can concentrate to make it go the other way. it might be a delusion , but two people watching it at the same time can see it going in a different way. The left side of your brain controls verbal ability, attention to detail, and reasoning. Left brained people are good at communication and persuading others. If you're left brained, you are likely good at math and logic. Your left brain prefers dogs, reading, and quiet. The right side of your brain is all about creativity and flexibility. Daring and intuitive, right brained people see the world in their unique way. If you're right brained, you likely have a talent for creative writing and art. Your right brain prefers day dreaming, philosophy, and sports. also it could be because ofthe brain is making an attempt to perceive a 2d image as though it was 3d. We gather our sight information and then our brain fills in the gaps and shows us a right or left spinning girl...we can change it back and forth because it is merely just the processing in the visual cortex of the brain.