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Binomial nomenclature

The formal system of naming species of living things is called binomial nomenclature (especially in botany, but also used by zoologists), binominal nomenclature (since 1953 the technically correct form in zoology), or binary nomenclature. This system of naming was invented byLinnaeus. The up-to-date version of the rules of naming for animals and plants are laid out in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature respectively.

The essence of the binomial system of naming is this: each species name has two parts, the genus name and the species name (also known as the specific epithet), for example, Homo sapiens, which is the scientific name of the human species. Every two-part scientific name is either formed out of (modern scientific)Latin or is a Latinized version of words from other languages.

The two-part name of a species is commonly known as its Latin name. However,biologists and philologists prefer to use the term scientific name rather than "Latin name", because the words used to create these names are not always from the Latin language, even though words from other languages have usually been Latinized in order to make them suitable for this purpose. Species names are often derived from Ancient Greek words, or words from numerous other languages. Frequently species names are based on the surname of a person, such as a well-regarded scientist, or are a Latinized version of a relevant place name.

Carl von Linné (also known as Linnaeus) chose to use a two-word naming system, and did not use what over time came to be a full seven-category system (kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species.) Linnaeus chose a binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the whole name of the species. For example, humans belong to genus Homo and their specific name is sapiens. Humans as a species are thus classified as Homo sapiens. The first letter of the first name, the genus, is always capitalized, while that of the second is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Conventionally, all names of genera and lower taxa are always italicised, while family names and higher taxa are printed in plain text. Species can be divided into a further rank, giving rise to a trinomial name for a subspecies (trinomenfor animals,ternary namefor plants).

Biologists, when using a name of a species, usually also give the authority and date of the species description. Thus zoologists will give the name of a particular sea snail species as: Patella vulgataLinnaeus, 1758. The name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that described the species; 1758 is the date of the publication in which the original description can be found, in this case the bookSystema Naturae.

History

The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedishbotanist and physicianCarl von Linné also known by his Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus attempted to describe the entire known natural world, giving every species (mineral, plant, or animal) a two-part name. This was an improvement over descriptive names that involved a whole descriptive phrase comprising numerous words. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms had existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years earlier.

Value

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:

  • Clarity. It avoids the confusions that can be created when attempting to use common names to refer to a species. Common names often differ even from one part of a country to another part, and certainly vary from one country to another. In contrast, the scientific name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding confusion and difficulties of translation.
  • Stability. The procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. Even though such stability as exists is far from absolute, it is still advantageous. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.

Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy).

Derivation

The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (often a naturalist), a name from the local language etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including in-jokes and puns. However, names are always treated gra

Library classification

A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials (books, serials, audiovisual materials, computer files, maps, manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number to that information resource. Similar to classification systems used in biology, bibliographic classification systems group entities together that are similar, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways.

Description

Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. It is a form of bibliographic classification (library classifications are used in library catalogs, while "bibliographic classification" also covers classification used in other kinds of bibliographic databases). It goes hand in hand with library (descriptive) cataloging under the rubric of cataloging and classification, sometimes grouped together as technical services. The library professional who engages in the process of cataloging and classifying library materials is called a cataloguer or catalog librarian. Library classification systems are one of the two tools used to facilitate subject access. The other consists of alphabetical indexing languages such as Thesauri and Subject Headings systems.

Library classification of a piece of work consists of two steps. Firstly the "aboutness" of the material is ascertained. Next, a call number (essentially a book's address), based on the classification system in use at the particular library will be assigned to the work using the notation of the system.

It is important to note that unlike subject heading or thesauri where multiple terms can be assigned to the same work, in library classification systems, each work can only be placed in one class. This is due to shelving purposes: A book can have only one physical place. However in classified catalogs one may have main entries as well as added entries. Most classification systems like the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and Library of Congress classification also add a cutter number to each work which adds a code for the author of the work.

Classification systems in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly they facilitate subject access by allowing the user to find out what works or documents the library has on a certain subject. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be located (e.g. where it is shelved).

Until the 19th century, most libraries had closed stacks, so the library classification only served to organize the subject catalog. In the 20th century, libraries opened their stacks to the public and started to shelve the library material itself according to some library classification to simplify subject browsing.

Some classification systems are more suitable for aiding subject access, rather than for shelf location. For example, UDC which uses a complicated notation including plus, colons are more difficult to use for the purpose of shelf arrangement but are more expressive compared to DDC in terms of showing relationships between subjects. Similarly faceted classification schemes are more difficult to use for shelf arrangement, unless the user has knowledge of the citation order.

Depending on the size of the library collection, some libraries might use classification systems solely for one purpose or the other. In extreme cases a public library with a small collection might just use a classification system for location of resources but might not use a complicated subject classification system. Instead all resources might just be put into a couple of wide classes (Travel, Crime, Magazines etc.). This is known as a "mark and park" classification method, more formally called reader interest classification.

Types

There are many standard system of library classification in use, and many more have been proposed over the years. However in general, Classification systems can be divided into three types depending on how they are used.

In terms of functionality, classification systems are often described as

  • enumerative: produce an alphabetical list of subject headings, assign numbers to each heading in alphabetical order

library classification is the technical process

  • hierarchical: divides subjects hierarchically, from most general to most specific
  • faceted or analytico-synthetic: divides subjects into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets

There are few completely enumerative systems or faceted systems, most systems are a blend but favouring one type or the other. The most common classification systems, LCC and DDC, are essentially enumerative, though with som


From Yahoo Answers

Question:do u know the answers in these three questions???? if so,,, please help me!! 1. which category is higher in the hierarchical levels of classification, kingdom or domain???? 2. why do schemes of classification change??? (question 2 and 3 have connection) 3. is this good or bad?? and why??? please answer me!!!! thank you so much!!!!!!!!!!!!

Answers:1. Domain 2. We discover new species and have better technology to analyze the ones we already know about, which gives us more information that might show different relationships then were originally thought between groups of organisms. 3. Good and bad. Good to have the new information, but sometimes bad in that the system of organization gets changed and a) not all scientists are aware of it globally and b) it's hard to agree on how things can be organized.

Question:I really need to get this done,it is past the end of the semester and I need to get it done! A.Canis lupus B.Red wolf C.Ailurus Fulgens D.kingdom Which phrase best describes the Linnaean classification system? A.Each genus contains one species. B.The taxa are interchangeable. C.There is only one kingdom. D.Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3.The evolutionary history for a group of species is called a A.clade. B.phylogeny. C.convergence. D.taxonomy. 4.The embryos of both mammals and reptiles are protected by amniotic fluid. What is this type of trait called? A.cladogram B.outgroup C.derived character D.molecular evidence 5.Which of the following would be considered the strongest evidence that two species are related to one another? A.common structures B.shared taxon C.similar genes D.same extinction pattern 6.In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring? A.phylum B.species C.genus D.order 7.The best molecular clock for comparing distantly related species is A.mitochondrial DNA. B.ribosomal RNA. C.nuclear DNA. D.protein. 8.Woese separated the kingdom Monera into the following two kingdoms: A.Eukarya and Bacteria. B.Archaea and Prokaryote. C.Prokaryote and Eukaryote. D.Bacteria and Archaea. 9.Which description distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes? A.Eukaryotes have a cell wall. B.Eukaryotes are multicellular. C.Eukaryotes are photosynthetic. D.Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10.What characteristic of fungi makes them different from plants? A.They grow only in shade. B.They have a different cell membrane. C.They do not feed in the same way. D.They are prokaryotes, not eukaryotes. 11.The term mouse used to be commonly known to mean a small furry rodent. It has evolved to also mean a device used in operating a computer. This is an example of why A.a living language is not used in scientific naming systems. B.a dead language is not used in scientific naming systems. C.mice have become more evolutionarily advanced. D.humans should avoid using slang in everyday language. 12.Binomial nomenclature uses what two taxa to name an organism? A.phylum and genus B.genus and species C.phylum and species D.class and order 13.Which of the following lists Linnaean taxa in the correct order from general to specific? A.phylum, order, family, genus B.kingdom, order, class, phylum C.family, phylum, genus, species D.class, order, species, genus 14.Which of the following contains the most members? A.genus B.order C.family D.class 15.Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in A.evolutionary trees. B.Linnaean taxonomy. C.cladograms. D.molecular clocks. 16.In the blank cladogram in Figure 17.1, what type of information would go on the lines labeled A? A.clades B.outgroupings C.common ancestors D.derived characters 17.Figure 17.2 shows one set of genetic differences between humans and other animals. By this measure, which listed species is most related to humans? A.rabbit B.mouse C.turtle D.chimpanzee 18.In the Linnaean system of classification, a species is most commonly defined as A.the commonly used name for an organism. B.a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. C.the most general taxon of the classification system. D.a group with similar physical characteristics. 19.Which type of molecular clock is used to measure evolutionary time between the most distantly related organisms? A.amino acid B.nuclear DNA C.ribosomal RNA D.mitochondrial DNA 20.Carl Woese divided the kingdom Monera into the kingdoms Bacteria and A.Plantae. B.Fungi. C.Protista. D.Archaea. 21.Which domain contains all organisms that have a nucleus? A.Bacteria B.Archaea C.Eukarya D.Protista 22.Plants obtain their food through photosynthesis. This makes them different from which of the following? A.fungi B.producers C.trees D.none of the above 23.Latin is the preferred language for scientific naming because it is a(n) A.easy language to learn. B.dead language. C.living language. D.versatile language. 24.The two-part naming system for naming species is called A.binomen naming. B.cladographic naming. C.binomial nomenclature. D.cladistic nomenclature. 25.The longer two species are separated after diverging from a common ancestor, A.the more likely they will be able to interbreed when reunited. B.the less likely they will have differences at the molecular level. C.the more similar the species will be at the molecular level. D.the more different the species will be at the molecular level.

Answers:1) Canis lupus 2) Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3) Phylogeny 4) Derived character 5) Similar genes 6) Species 7) Ribosomal RNA 8) Bacteria and Archaea. 9) Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10) They do not feed in the same way. 11) a living language is not used in scientific naming systems 12) genus and species 13) phylum, order, family, genus 14) Class 15) Linnaean taxonomy. 16) I don't see a chart. 17) I still don't see a chart. 18) a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. 19) nuclear DNA 20) Archaea 21) Eukarya 22) Fungi 23) Versatile language 24) Binomial nomenclature. 25) the more different the species will be at the molecular level.

Question:Which of the following is correctly written in the binomial nomenclature system? A. Canis lupus B. Red wolf C. Ailurus Fulgens D. kingdom 2. Which phrase best describes the Linnaean classification system? A. Each genus contains one species. B. The taxa are interchangeable. C. There is only one kingdom. D. Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3. The evolutionary history for a group of species is called a A. clade. B. phylogeny. C. convergence. D. taxonomy. 4. The embryos of both mammals and reptiles are protected by amniotic fluid. What is this type of trait called? A. cladogram B. outgroup C. derived character D. molecular evidence 5. Which of the following would be considered the strongest evidence that two species are related to one another? A. common structures B. shared taxon C. similar genes D. same extinction pattern 6. In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring? A. phylum B. species C. genus D. order 7. The best molecular clock for comparing distantly related species is A. mitochondrial DNA. B. ribosomal RNA. C. nuclear DNA. D. protein. 8. Woese separated the kingdom Monera into the following two kingdoms: A. Eukarya and Bacteria. B. Archaea and Prokaryote. C. Prokaryote and Eukaryote. D. Bacteria and Archaea. 9. Which description distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes? A. Eukaryotes have a cell wall. B. Eukaryotes are multicellular. C. Eukaryotes are photosynthetic. D. Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10. What characteristic of fungi makes them different from plants? A. They grow only in shade. B. They have a different cell membrane. C. They do not feed in the same way. D. They are prokaryotes, not eukaryotes. 11. The term mouse used to be commonly known to mean a small furry rodent. It has evolved to also mean a device used in operating a computer. This is an example of why A. a living language is not used in scientific naming systems. B. a dead language is not used in scientific naming systems. C. mice have become more evolutionarily advanced. D. humans should avoid using slang in everyday language. 12. Binomial nomenclature uses what two taxa to name an organism? A. phylum and genus B. genus and species C. phylum and species D. class and order 13. Which of the following lists Linnaean taxa in the correct order from general to specific? A. phylum, order, family, genus B. kingdom, order, class, phylum C. family, phylum, genus, species D. class, order, species, genus 14. Which of the following contains the most members? A. genus B. order C. family D. class 15. Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in A. evolutionary trees. B. Linnaean taxonomy. C. cladograms. D. molecular clocks.

Answers:The correct answer is (A). Genus capitalized, species not. No one wants to do all your homework for you...

Question:1. For many species, there are often regional differences in their.. a. common names b. scientific names c. taxa. d. binomial nomenclature 2. Often, the 2nd part of a scientific name is a. a description of a trait or habitat b. the same as for other members of the same genus c. capitalized if it derives from a proper name d. different in different locations 3. several different classes make up a: a. kingdom b. phylum c. family d. genus 4. Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily a. extinct organisms b. RNA similarities c. DNA similarities d. visible similarities and differences 5. In an evolutionary classification scheme, species within one genus should a. be more closey related to one another than they are to species in other genera. b. be less closey related to one another than they are to species in other genera. c. be limited to species that can interbreed d. have identical genes 6. What is true about dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast? a. they are not related at all b. their degree of relatedness cannot be evaluated c. their degree of relatedness can be estimated from their genes. d. they can interbreed and thus are the same species 7. All organisms in the kingdom protista, plantae, and aminalia are a. multicellular organisms b. photosynthetic organisms c. eukaryotes d. prokaryotes 8. to be useful, a scientific name has to refer to a. all living species b. all lving and extinct species c. all species in one habitat d. a single species GIVING OUT BEST ANSWER POINTS. and dont tell me to do my hw, cause this is just a study guide for me.

Answers:Ok then do your own study guide.