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From Wikipedia

Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a series of chemical element s forming Group 1 ( IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium ( Li), sodium ( Na), potassium ( K), rubidium ( Rb), caesium ( Cs), and francium ( Fr).( Hydrogen, although nominally also a member of Group 1, very rarely exhibits


From Encyclopedia

alkali metals

alkali metals metals found in Group 1 of the periodic table . Compared to other metals they are soft and have low melting points and densities. Alkali metals are powerful reducing agents and form univalent compounds. All react violently with water, releasing hydrogen and forming hydroxides. They tarnish rapidly even in dry air. They are never found uncombined in nature. In order of increasing atomic number the alkali metals are lithium , sodium , potassium , rubidium , cesium , and francium .

Alkali Metals

Alkali metals are the six elements that comprise Group I in the Periodic Table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Especially when dissolved in water, these elements form strong bases (alkalis) capable of reacting with and neutralizing strong acids. Each metal has the electron configuration of an inert (noble) gas plus one electron in the next higher s orbital. Thus, Na is 1s 22s 22p 63s 1 or alternatively (Ne)3s 1. Virtually all alkali metal compounds are ionic in nature because this outermost single electron is readily lost, forming relatively stable monovalent ions. Sodium and potassium are abundant in Earth's crust, each comprising about 2.5 percent, and the two being the 6th and 7th most abundant elements, respectively. Other alkali metals are at least one hundred times less abundant. Francium is virtually nonexistent in the environment since all isotopes are radioactive with short half-lives. Alkali metals are very reactive, and thus none occurs in a free state in the environment. They spontaneously react with oxygen, water, halogens , phosphorus, sulfur, and other substances; lithium even reacts with nitrogen. Reactions with water can be violent, with the evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of strongly alkaline solutions. Compounds of various alkali metals were known in ancient times, but the great English chemist Sir Humphry Davy first isolated pure metals, purifying potassium and then sodium in 1807. Sodium is derived from "soda," a term used in the Middle Ages to characterize all alkalis, originally from the Latin sodanum, which was a headache remedy; its symbol Na is derived from the Latin word for soda, natrium. Potassium comes from the French word potasse (later the English potash ), the residue produced when wood ash solutions are evaporated (so-called pot ashes); its symbol K derives from the Latin kalium and ultimately Arabic qali, meaning "alkali." The Swedish chemist J. A. Arfedson discovered lithium during his analysis of the mineral petalite in 1817, although W. T. Brande and Davy first produced the pure metal. The name is derived from the Greek word lithos (meaning "stony"). During their flame spectrometry experiments on mineral waters in 1860, the German chemists Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen determined the existence of cesium from the characteristic two blue lines in the spectrum. Likewise, extracts of the mineral lepidolite exhibited two dark red spectral lines from which the presence of Rb was inferred. Thus, cesium derives from the Latin caesius, meaning "heavenly blue," whereas rubidium derives from rubidus, the Latin word used to describe a very dark red color. Bunsen was able to isolate pure Rb but not Cs, later purified by C. Setterberg. Since all isotopes of Fr are radioactive, it was not discovered until 1939 at the Curie Institute in Paris by Marguerite Perey, although the Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev predicted its existence. Its name derives from that of France, the country where it was discovered. Because of their metallic and alkaline properties, potassium and especially sodium are widely used in a variety of industrial processes both as metals and as compounds with various other elements. Lithium is rarely used, but does find application in lightweight alloys with magnesium. Rubidium and cesium are not commonly utilized industrially, except for some applications in electronics. Sodium and potassium are essential for life, sodium being the principal extracellular and potassium the major intracellular monovalent cations. The other alkali metals have no essential biological role. see also Bunsen, Robert; Cesium; Davy, Humphry; Francium; Lithium; Mendeleev, Dimitri; Potassium; Rubidium; Sodium. Michael E. Maguire Nechaev, I.; Jenkins, G. W.; and Van Loon, Borin (1997). Chemical Elements: The Exciting Story of Their Discovery and of the Great Scientists Who Found Them. Jersey City, NJ: Parkwest Publications. Rossotti, Hazel (1998). Diverse Atoms: Profiles of the Chemical Elements. New York: Oxford University Press. Mark (2003). WebElements Periodic Table, Scholar Edition. WebElements Ltd. Additional information available from .


From Yahoo Answers

Question:What are some similarities and some differences between: lithium sodium potassium rubidium cesium francium Also what kind of reaction happens when they are combined with other elements (e.g. oxygen, water) any help will be appriciated, im so stuck!

Answers:Well they all have the same number of outer shell electons, hence why they are all in the same group - group 1 of the periodic table indicating they all have 1 outer shell electron. They all have a different number of protons and neutrons, as well as electrons. They have an increasing rate of reactions down the group as the outer shell electron experiences more distance and shielding effects so is more easily removed in reactions. There's loads to say about them, have a look at this link there's some good stuff on there. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkali_metal Hope this helps

Question:(In properties)

Answers:Alkali metals are monovalent in nature (only want to give up one electron), want to give up that electron easily, and prefer to remain in a +1 state. This makes them useful in batteries and salt solutions but too reactive to be useful metals. Transition metals make good metallic conductors and have multiple stable valence states.

Question:

Answers:One column on the periodic table. The alkali metals are in group IA, and are much more reactive than the alkaline earth metals, which are in group IIA. The alkali metals have only one valence electron in the outermost s-orbital, while the alkaline earth metals have two electrons in the outermost s-orbital. The alkali metals have lower ionization energies than do the alkaline earth metal, and the same is true for electronegativities.

Question:chemistry periodic table.

Answers:Alkali metals are the elements in the first column of the periodic table they lose one electron to from cations of a +1 charge, while alkali earth metals are the elements in the second column of the periodic table and the give up two electrons to form cations of a +2 charge

From Youtube

Alkaline Earth & Alkali Metals in Water :To show the differences in reactivity and the periodic trend of reactivity between alkaline earth and alkali metals. Starting with the least reactive magnesium, it is followed by calcium, lithium, sodium, and potassium. Some parts have been sped up to speed up the video and rate of reaction.

Alkali Metals - Lithium and Sodium :Sorry about the low audio volume, still working out the kinks in this nightmare that is video conversions and editing. Here I compare the reactivity of two alkali (group 1) metals, Lithium and Sodium. Generally, reactivity increases as you go down a group in the periodic table, so since sodium is directly under lithium it will be more reactive. Lithium is the lightest metal, and has the atomic number 3. Sodium is directly below it, having an atomic number of 11. Both are very shiny when freshly cut, but will tarnish rapidly in air. Both are extremely soft and can be easily cut with a knife. Interestingly, lithium is one of the very few materials that will react with nitrogen (N2) under standard conditions. This forms the black lithium nitride, Li3N, which is why my sample turned black unlike the sodium, which forms only the white hydroxide NaOH.