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Children's literature is for readers and listeners up to about age twelve and is often illustrated. The term is used in senses which sometimes exclude young-adult fiction, comic books, or other genres. Books specifically for children existed by the 17th century. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications and university courses.
Defining children's literature
There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature.
Books written by children
A much-overlooked kind of children's literature is work written by children and young teens, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary. Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. In 1937 two schoolchildren, Pamela Whitlock and Katharine Hull sent their manuscript of The Far-Distant OxustoArthur Ransome, who persuaded his publisher Jonathan Cape to produce it, characterising it as "the best children's book of 1937". Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples.
Books written for children
Perhaps the most common definition of children's literature is those books intentionally written for children. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material". Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Timescreated a separatebestseller list. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children.
Books chosen for children
The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees.
Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White,Hansel and Gretel,BambiandA Series of Unfortunate Events.
Many see such isolation of child characters from supporting adults as necessary preparation for the transition to adulthood. The school story became a common device for this, beginning with Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes and F.W. Farrar's Eric, or, Little by Little, although the framework had been explored as early as 1749 bySarah Fielding in The Governess, or The Little Female Academy. Life begins for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in theMark Twain stories (1876 and 1885) once Aunt Polly's ineffectual tutelage is shaken off. In the classic British novels Tom's Midnight Garden(Philippa Pearce, 1958) and Jessamy(Barbara Sleigh, 1967), for example, the responsibility is enhanced by isolating the child not just spatially, but in time, through the use of time slip. Arthur Ransome used the device of children acting for themselves extensively in his Swallows and Amazons series (1930â€“48) and included poignant discussion of it (the "duffer" question in Swallows and AmazonsandSwallowdale).
Books chosen by children
The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerri
1 History; 2 Published diaries; 3 Journal writing software; 4 Internet diaries.... For example, some diary software now stores entries in encrypted format, ...
Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.
Most dairy farms sell the male calves born by their cows, usually for veal production, or breeding depending on quality of the bull calf, rather than raising non-milk-producing stock. Many dairy farms also grow their own feed, typically including corn, alfalfa, and hay. This is fed directly to the cows, or is stored as silage for use during the winter season.
Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years. Historically it has been one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms doing only dairy production have emerged. Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk, but no cows of their own.
Centralized dairy farming as we understand it primarily developed around villages and cities, where residents were unable to have cows of their own due to a lack of grazing land. Near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town. The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk in the morning and bring it to market on a wagon. Until the late 19th century, the milking of the cow was done by hand. In the United States, several large dairy operations existed in some northeastern states and in the west, that involved as many as several hundred cows, but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows a day. Smaller operations predominated.
For most herds, milking took place indoors twice a day, in a barn with the cattle tied by the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions. Feeding could occur simultaneously with milking in the barn, although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings. Such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate, but some are preserved as a historic site for a glimpse into the days gone by. One such instance that is open for this is at Point ReyesNational Seashore.
Vacuum bucket milking
The first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail. The early milker device fit on top of a regular milk pail and sat on the floor under the cow. Following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank. This developed into the Surge hanging milker. Prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow, across the cow's lower back. The milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap. This innovation allowed the cow to move around naturally during the milking process rather than having to stand perfectly still over a bucket on the floor.
With the availability of electric power and suction milking machines, the production levels that were possible in stanchion barns increased but the scale of the operations continued to be limited by the labor intensive nature of the milking process. Attaching and removing milking machines involved repeated heavy lifting of the machinery and its contents several times per cow and the pouring of the milk into milk cans. As a result, it was rare to find single-farmer operations of more than 50 head of cattle.
Step-Saver milk transport
As herd size began to increase, the bucket milker system became laborious. A vacuum milk-transport system known as the Step-Saver was developed to transport milk to the storage tank. The system used a long vacuum hose coiled around a receiver cart, and connected to a vacuum-breaker device in the milkhouse, allowing farmers to milk many cows without the necessity of walking increasingly longer distances carrying heavy buckets of milk.
The next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline. This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows, with quick-seal entry ports above each cow. By eliminating the need for the milk container, the milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow, held up only by the sucking force of the milker nipples on the cow's udder. The milk is pulled up into the milk-return pipe by the vacuum system, and then flows by gravity to the milkhouse vacuum-breaker that puts the milk in the storage tank. The pipeline system greatly reduced the physical labor of milking since the farmer no longer needed to carry around huge heavy buckets of milk from each cow.
The pipeline allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding, but after a point farmers started to milk the cows in large groups, filling the barn with one-half to one-third of the herd, milking the animals, and then emptying and refilling the barn. As herd sizes continued to increase, this evolved into the more efficient milking parlor.
Innovation in milking focused on mechanizing the milking parlor to maximize throughput of cows per operator which streamlined the milking process to permit cows to be milked as if on an assembly line, and to reduce physical stresses on the farmer by putting the cows on a platform slightly above the person milking the cows to eliminate having to constantly bend over. Many older and smaller farms still have tie-stall or stanchion barns, but worldwide a majority of commercial farms have parlors.
The milking parlor allowed a concentration of money into a small area, so that more technical monitoring and measuring equipment could be devoted to each milking station in the parlor. Rather than simply milking into a common pipeline for example, the parlor can be equipped with fixed measurement systems that monitor milk volume and record milking statistics for each animal. Tags on the animals allow the parlor system to automatically identify each animal as it enters the parlor.
More modern farms use recessed parlors, where the milker stands in a recess such that his arms are at the level of the cow's udder. Recessed parlors can be herringbone, where the cows stand in two angled rows either side of the recess and the milker accesses the udder from the side, parallel, where the cows stand side-by-side and the milker accesses the udder from the rear or, more recently, rotary (or carousel), where the cows are on a raised circular platform, facing the center of the circle, and the platform rotates while the milker
An activity book is a type of book, generally aimed at children, which contains interactive content such as games, puzzles, quizzes, pictures to colour and other elements which involve writing or drawing in the book itself. The book may, or may not, have a loose narrative or contain other non-interactive elements structured around the interactive elements. Activity books may be made for entertainment, education or a mixture of both.
Specific types of activity book include colouring books and puzzle books. A book is normally referred to as an activity book if it combines a variety of interactive elements and does not fall neatly into one of these more specific categories.
The Where's Wally series of books (known as Where's Waldo in the USA) by Martin Handford consists of both puzzle books, where the reader must search for characters hidden in pictures, and activity books such as Where's Waldo?: The Ultimate Fun Book, which include a wider range of games and activities as well as the normal puzzles.
The Horrible Histories series by Terry Deary, and its spin-offs, include a number of educational activity books.
Diary of a Wimpy Kid
The Diary of a Wimpy Kid Do-It-Yourself Book by Jeff Kinney is an activity book which contains space for readers to keep a written or drawn diary or journal as well Wimpy Kid-themedas puzzles and cartoons.
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Answers:Well can you a few of my favorite sites but be aware a few of them have pop ups that annoy the c out of me.. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/first-world-war/interviews/025015-1500-e.html example of an interview http://www.collectionscanada.ca/first-world-war/interviews/025015-1510-e.html """Q. How does a new man get himself killed? A. He's nervous, they didn't know where they were going to and they didn't know how to walk, how to grab things. The first noise, the first thing they could hear, they wanted to see it. Instead it was the opposite thing, they had to head down first and wait after and that's where our great casualties were coming from and that's what we had to prevent and that was the training that we did for our soldiers. Q. Were you nervous when you were a private? A. No, I would not say that I was nervous. I was like all the others. I would not say that we were afraid to be killed but we were trying to make a good service, what we had there to do. Altogether, everybody did a good job out of that but there was that special training that we had to pass to the others, the men coming through trenches. You knew something better and they could carry on better. Q. Well, instead of teaching them how to defeat the enemy, you taught them how to stay alive. A. No, in doing their work they were staying alive. No one could say that you were sure of going there and coming back. That was a bad policy. Anyone who said he was going there to be decorated, he was drawn back right away because he was not a good fighter, he was not a good man. We were there trying to make the best of it. Making the best of it is to organize our lives, that was the main thing. Q. It was a difficult life. A. A very difficult life. First, a soldier had to be happy. To be happy he had to be well-fed but in trenches we cannot expect that because we did not have the food and we could not even cook the food that we had so we had to make the best of it. That's part of the character that we had to go through. In making the men happy we could see what was going on and try to live through it, not in trying to save lives but he was saving his life in being cautious because dead men were no use for the army. We had to do what we had to do and do it in the right way.""" http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtrench.htm http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ and a particularly good Diary site http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/index.htm an example http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/edwinjones.htm """January 17th 1916 Entered the Persian Gulf - a sight never to be forgotten. The boat was only allowed to go very slowly, and we could see all the Palm Groves and native houses - of course, some palaces. We were greeted with many cheers, and even the smallest children raced alongside the River Tigris asking for pennies. January 20th 1916 Came alongside of quay at Basrah, and oh, what a terrible night! Started to unload all heavy stuff, and managed to get same on shore when a terrible storm started. Poured with rain, and thundering and lightening. Had to go on shore and do duty on guard. Reed was with me, but it was impossible to keep dry or warm. At 9 p.m. the Sergeant-in-Charge came, and said we were to go back on board, but the difficulty was to get there. Sergeant went up the rope-ladder first and I followed, but Reed was too frightened to climb, so we had to lower a rope to pull him along. Slept on board.""" http://lu.softxs.ch/mackay/RLM_Diary.html And with a Song in my Soul I pass along link and a few snippets, therre is a nig list of songs! http://nfo.net/usa/ww1.html """"America Here's My Boy", The Peerless Quartet's hit. "America, I Love You", Edgar Leslie lyric and Archie Gottlier music. (Kalmar & Puck Music Co., 142 West 45th St., NYC 1915) "And He'd Say "Oo-La-La Wee-Wee", A Harry Ruby and George Jessel (1919) tune was a big Billy Murray (and others) vocal hit "Belgian Rose", (digitally re-engineered by Mr. Verne Buland) Singers Campbell and Burr had the hit. "Beside a Belgian Water Tank" "Bombed!" "Coast Artillery Song" "Darktown Strutters Ball, The" "Dixie is Dixie Once Again" "Don't Bite The Hand That's Feeding You" "Don't Cry Frenchy, Don't Cry", A duet by Charles Hart/Elliott Shaw was a hit. "" But CARTOONS are my favorite http://rutlandhs.k12.vt.us/jpeterso/uboatcar.htm http://www.trinity.wa.edu.au/plduffyrc/subjects/sose/coop/posters.htm http://www.firstworldwar.com/poetsandprose/bairnsfather.htm Hope this helps - - - never know if I have done enough not enough or way to much! Peace
Answers:Its very good so far, I didn't get bored reading which is a good thing :'L! It was interesting, I am doing the Nazis in history just now. There are a few spelling mistakes which can easily be sorted. These are most of them if not all of them (these are them corrected). entries process thieves bombings an old dentist truly :')
Answers:You can use the Renaissance Learning site to check the word count of a lot of books, so if you can think of short books for young children, plug in the titles and see if they have the info. (FYI to the person suggesting Diary of a Wimpy Kid, that is more like 20,000 words.) I've linked to the site in my sources. Here are a few I thought of and looked up for you, in the general range: Amelia Bedelia Helps Out (1742 words) http://tinyurl.com/yzg59gc Stellaluna (1463) http://tinyurl.com/yle28kb The Enormous Crocodile (2871 words) http://tinyurl.com/yjozlbf I'd say go to the library and look around in the kids' section to get an idea of how they're written and how long they are-- and if you'd like to know specific word counts, you can use the library computers to plug in a few titles to the renlearn site.
Answers:Some of it is interesting and it explains some things that are usually mentioned, but not explained much in other articles. The article only covers a small part of AS though. Since you went into such detail about this part of AS, I think you should at least mention that there is much more to AS than this, because people who don't know much about it could think this is it and that there are no other symptoms or problems in AS. I'm also not sure about the comparison with children. Aspies do have some childlike traits, but you make it sound like we need to be treated like children, which is definitely not what we need. Adult aspies should be treated as adults, but with acceptance and support when needed. I think the article needs to be a bit more clear on this. Other than that, well done.