Explore Related Concepts

diagram preparation of carbon dioxide

Best Results From Wikipedia Yahoo Answers Youtube


From Wikipedia

Magnesium carbonate

Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. In addition, MgCO3 has a variety of uses.

Forms

The most common magnesium carbonate forms are the anhydrous salt called magnesite(MgCO3) and the di, tri, and pentahydrates known as barringtonite (MgCO3·2H2O), nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O), and lansfordite (MgCO3·5H2O), respectively. Some basic forms such as artinite (MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), hydromagnestite (4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O), and dypingite (4MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·5H2O) also occur as minerals. Magnesite consists of white trigonalcrystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms of magnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg2+ is surrounded by six oxygen atoms. The dihydrate one has a triclinic structure, while the trihydrate has a monoclinic structure.

References to 'light' and 'heavy' magnesium carbonates actually refer to the magnesium hydroxy carbonates hydromagnesite and dypingite (respectively).

Reactions

Although magnesium carbonate is ordinarily obtained by mining the mineral magnesite, the trihydrate salt, MgCO3·3H2O, can be prepared by mixing solutions of magnesium and carbonateions under an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Magnesium carbonate can also be synthesized by exposing a magnesium hydroxide slurry to carbon dioxide under pressure (3.5 to 5 atm) below 50 °C, which gives soluble magnesium bicarbonate:

Mg(OH)2 + 2 CO2→ Mg(HCO3)2

Following the filtration of the solution, the filtrate is dried under vacuum to produce magnesium carbonate as a hydrated salt:

Mg2+ + 2 HCO3-→ MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O

When dissolved with acid, magnesium carbonate decomposes with release of carbon dioxide:

MgCO3 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
MgCO3 + H2SO4→ MgSO4 + CO2 + H2O

At a temperature range between (250 °C - 800 °C), MgCO3 decomposes to magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide with reaction enthalpy 118 kJ / mole, this process is called calcining:

MgCO3 -{250-800 °C}→ MgO + CO2

Above 500 °C the process reaches a decomposition rate of 100% MgO, the publicated decomposition temperature in cases of material safety is 662 °C.

Uses

Magnesite and dolomiteminerals are used to produce magnesium metal and basic refractory bricks. MgCO3 is also used in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Other applications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a drying agent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and color retention in foods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing.

Because of its water-insoluble, hygroscopic properties MgCO3 was first added to salt in 1911 to make the salt flow more freely. The Morton Salt company adopted the slogan "When it rains it pours" in reference to the fact that its MgCO3-containing salt would not stick together in humid weather.

Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as 'chalk', is used as a drying agent for hands in rock climbing, gymnastics, and weight lifting.

Magnesium carbonate is also used in taxidermy for whitening skulls. It can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide to create a paste, which is then spread on the skull to give it a white finish.

Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide is used as a clay in face masks, it has mild astringent properties and helps to smooth and soften (normal and dry) skin.

Food additive

As a food additive magnesium carbonate is known as E504, for which the only known side effect is that it may work as a laxative in high concentrations.

Toxicology

Magnesium carbonate itself is not toxic. However, its excessive use may cau


From Yahoo Answers

Question:In this activity you will trace the path of an imaginary, radioactively labeled carbon atom through the various molecules in which it is organized. The atom begins its journey as part of carbon dioxide and ends up as part of a muscle protein in a human arm. Your task is to use the knowledge that you have gained in this chapter to draw a diagram of what happens to the atom during its journey. Then you will explain the source of energy for these events. 1. Construct a diagram or other visual aid to show a plausible set of events that could explain how a labeled carbon atom in a molecule of atmospheric carbon dioxide ends up in a human muscle protein. There is more than one possible scenario, but you must show a sequence that actually occurs in nature, and you must be able to justify and explain the sequence that you choose. I'm using fish & algae in the ocean for my project. Can anybody help me?

Answers:Algae absorb carbon dioxide by diffusion. It is dissolved in the water and is required by the algae for photosynthesis. As the carbon dioxide is being used up in the process of photosynthesis its concentration inside the algae is lower than in the surrounding water - and so the carbon dioxide continually diffuses inwards.

Question:Cameroons Lake Nyos tragedy (1986) was the result of molten magma rupture aprox 50 miles below the bottom of the lake.The C02 made its way to the surface and spilled over the shores & down the valley, killing 1,700 people and about 3,000 cattle. Did it ever end up in the atmosphere , and if so , How ?? With respect to C02 capture & sequestration, there have been no problems with pipelines, & most engineers agree the risk is minimal. In the event of an accidental release of C02 into the environment, it would have to reach a concentration of 7%-10% of the air in a populated area for it to become dangerous to human health. That is 100,000 parts per million (PPM). The current atmospheric levels of C02 are about 350 to 400 ppm.. ( I say 400ppm because that is what the Greenhouse industry does in Southern Ontario to facilitate better plant growth & production of vegs.) Intuitively, I have difficulty subscribing to the forecast disasters ahead, if C02 levels increase from current levels of 350ppm ( 350 grams or 12 ounces per tonne) to 400+ ppm ( 400 grams or 14 ounces per tonne). Don't get me wrong; I'm all for pollution control in all its forms asap; but I just think that the Carbon witch hunt is backing the wrong horse. Without Carbon (in all of its forms ) there would be no Bio-chemistry or life. The recent Ontario Green Energy Act and feed-in-tariff program @ 80 cents per K.W Hour is a step in the right direction . Keep the tax dollars in North America and fund the Geothermal Drilling Research as well as other renewables. Also we need to claim credit for the Automotive Clean Air / drive program. What do you think ?? Supplementary Q.= The last two global warmings have benefitted man, and if I read the history correctly, C02 levels increased "after " the warming trend took place , not "before" . Is that true ??.

Answers:A. You're not understanding the physics behind the interaction between CO2 (and other greenhouse gas) molecules and light particles (photons). Solar heat reaches Earth in the form of visible and UV light. Some of this light is reflected back into space by clouds and light-scattering particles before it reaches Earth s surface. Most of the light does reach Earth's surface, providing warmth for sunbathers and energy for photosynthesis in plants. Once this energy warms the planet, it is then reflected off of Earth and back towards space in the form of longwave energy, or infrared light. Some of this infrared energy escapes into outer space, and some will be absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere. Most molecules in the atmosphere, such as nitrogen and oxygen, can not absorb this infrared energy. Greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, and CH4) are "tuned" to absorb energy at infrared wavelengths. Absorbing energy "excites" these greenhouse molecules. The excited molecule can either reemit the infrared wavelength. Or, the energy is released from "excited" greenhouse molecules through collisions with other molecules. Such collisions will transform the energy to heat; some of the heat is lost to space, some is directed downwards and warms earth's surface even more. The Earth also has a natural greenhouse gas effect. If the atmosphere completely lacked greenhouse gases, then the global average temperature would then be about 30 C (55 Fahrenheit) cooler. Water would be locked away as ice, and life would probably not be possible. The concentration of CO2 has increased by about 38% since industrialization, from about 280ppm to 388ppm. Humans have burned enough fossil fuels to raise the concentration of CO2 to its present level. Only by including the raising concentration of greenhouse gases CAN we account for the recent rise in global temperatures. Since the turn of the last century, the average global temperature has risen by about 0.8 C (about 1.4 F). Most of this increase has come within the last thirty years.[1] But please remember that we are not just talking about 0.8 C. Due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the average global temperature is expected to rise by another 1.1 to 6.4 C by 2100.[2] The most likely increase will be between 1.7 and 4.4 C. If humanity decreases the amount of CO2 emissions that are released into the atmosphere, then the temperature change will be smaller; if the amount of emissions increase, then the rate of global warming will also increase. Most climatologists remain optimistic because if humanity acts soon, then the most harmful of possible effects may be avoided. B. If you go back to the Lake Nyos area, you will not be killed by a lethal cloud of CO2 gas. This is because gases in the atmosphere do not separate out according to their weight. The forces of wind (turbulence) are strong enough to fully intermix gases in the atmosphere. Sure, it doesn't happen instantaneously, but gases and particular matter are uniformly distributed throughout the turbosphere and heavy gases even reach the upper atmosphere.

Question:1. Each oxygen is described by sp^3 hybridization 2. The molecule contains two Sigma bond 3) the molecule contains two lone pairs of valence electrons 4) the molecule contains four Pie bond 5) the carbon is escribed by sp^2 hybridization

Answers:This question is much easier to explain with proper diagrams Any decent general organic chem book should give you a chapter on hybridisation. CO2 looks like O=C=O 1. False, the O is sp^2 hybridised. There are actually two lone pairs of electrons around the Oxygen atom (sorry, can't show them on the diagram above) so it is actually trigonal planar. This shape indicates sp^2 hybridisation. The outer electron shell of C and O are comprised of 1 s and 3 p orbitals. Each is capable of holding 2 electrons. In sp hybridisation 1 p orbital and one s orbital combine to give 2 sp hybridised orbitals. There are two left over unhybridised p orbitals. The sp oribtals lie 180 degrees apart from each other, say along the x axis. Since sigma bonds form from overlap of hybridised orbitals then an sp hybridised atom will give a linear shape. The 2 p orbital lie along the y and z axis respectively. In sp^2 hybridisation, 2 p orbitals mix with the s orbital resulting in 3 sp^2 orbitals and one unhybridised p orbital. The sp^2 orbitals all lie in the same plane ~ 120 degrees apart from one and other, thus the shape about an atom that is sp^2 hybridised is trigonal planar. The unused p orbital will lie vertically straight up and down to the 3 hybridised orbitals. In sp^3 hybridisation. 3 p orbitals combine with 1 s orbitals to give 4 sp^3 orbitals that form a tetrahedral shape. 2. True. One sp^2 orbital from each O overlaps with one sp orbital from the C atom. Overlap of hybridised orbitals gives sigma bond. 3). False. Each O has two lone pairs of electron, so there are 4 altogether. Oxygen has 6 valence electron (electrons in outer shell). In both Oxygens in CO2 two of the valence electrons are involved in bonding with the C. This leaves 4 unbonded electrons. Each orbital can only hold 2 electrons. So the 4 electrons reside in two groups of "lone pairs". Each lone pairs resides in one of the sp^2 oritals. 4) False. Pi bonds form from overlap of p orbitals. The Carbon has two p orbitals and each Oxygen has one. 1 Pi bond will form between each O and the C. So there are 2 Pi bonds. 5). See above. CO2 is linear about the Carbon atom. It is sp hybridised. The fact that it has formed 2 double bonds means that it must have two p orbitals, and thus be sp hybridised.

Question:http://viewmorepics.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=user.viewPicture&friendID=413118159&albumId=0 1. In an ecosystem, energy is transferred from one feeding level to the next. Which statement explains why approximately 10% of the energy is lost during each transfer? A. It is transferred as thermal energy released from basic metabolic processes before it is transferred to the next feeding level. B. The energy is locked into the bonds, which cannot be broken by the animal at the next feeding level. C. The energy is transferred into an unusable form during the consumption process D. The energy is returned to the sun once the individual ceases to live 2. Use the diagram below to answer the question.The diagram shows the foot structure of several birds. Which foot structure is likely to have adapted to living in water? A. A B. B C. C D. D 3. Use the pedigree above to answer this question. The sickle cell trait is most likely A. dominant B. recessive C. sex-linked D. caused by a mutation 4. Convergent evolution is a term used to describe the process of organisms evolving similar features due to sharing a similar habitat. However, the structures of the features are drastically different. Which of the following pairs is an example of convergent evolution? A. Wing of a bird: flipper of a dolphin B. Hand of a human: wing of a bat C. Wing of an insect: wing of a bird D. Hand of a human: foot of a human 5. Lactic Acid fermentation is a process that allows cells to release energy in the absence of oxygen. What is this type of respiration called? A. Aerobic respiration B. Oxygenated respiration C. Anaerobic respiration D. Deoxygenated respiration 6. Darwin s finches provide an example of an evolutionary process that describes how populations of organisms can adapt and change when introduced to a new environment. As the finches migrated to other islands where food resources were different, over time, there were noticeable differences in beak structures between finches of the islands. This process is an example of A. Convergent evolution B. Adaptive radiation C. Homology D. Vestigial 7. One of the cellular processes is growth. However, if a cell becomes too large, it cannot maintain homeostasis (maintaining a stable internal environment) by moving nutrients and wastes through a cell efficiently. What process is a cell likely to undergo to ensure that homeostasis is maintained? A. Photosynthesis B. Cellular respiration C. Mitosis D. Protein synthesis 8. Plants have the ability to carry on photosynthesis to obtain energy. What energy transformation occurs during photosynthesis? A. Chemical energy to light energy B. Nuclear energy to chemical energy C. Electrical energy to light energy D. Light energy to chemical energy 9. Use the following information to answer the question Julian and Allison set up the following lab experiment. A pipette was filled with grape juice and yeast. Then it was inverted into a test tube filled with warm water. The students observed bubbles being released from the end of the pipette.Which of the following most likely identifies the gas being released? A. Oxygen B. Methane C. Carbon dioxide D. Nitrogen 10. Plants and animals obtain energy in different ways, but they both must transfer the energy obtained into a usable form. What is the usable form of energy called? A. Phosphorous B. ATP C. DNA D. NADPH 11. Which statement is a valid argument to support that viruses are not living organisms? A. Viruses are harmful to living organisms B. Viruses contain DNA and can reproduce alone C. Viruses require the presence of a host cell in order to reproduce D. Viruses transmit genetic information and change the function of a cell 12. The Germ theory describes how microorganisms invade and infect living organisms. The invention of what technological tool helped to construct the Germ Theory? A. Microscope B. Satellites C. Telescope D. Magnetic resonance imaging machine (MRI) 13. The table below is a taxonomic key for the genus Rana, more commonly known as frogs.This key can be used to distinguish four species of frogs. To which does the frog shown belong? A. Rana spenocelphala B. Rana clamitans C. Rana catesbeiana D. Rana vigrtipes 14. A student is attempting to identify the biological relationships among animals that are found locally. What characteristic would be most helpful to determine how closely the animals are related? A. Cell type B. Capability of making their own food C. Absence of nucleus in cells D. Presence of fur 15. Prokaryotic cells are different from eukaryotic cells. What charac

Answers:1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 8. D 14. A 12. A 11. C All i know sorry:)

From Youtube

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (3/4) :NASA's first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide is in final preparations for a 23rd February 2009 launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Carbon dioxide is the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth's climate. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory will provide the first complete picture of human and natural carbon dioxide sources as well as their "sinks," the places where carbon dioxide is pulled out of the atmosphere and stored. It will map the global geographic distribution of these sources and sinks and study their changes over time. The measurements will be combined with data from ground stations, aircraft and other satellites to help answer questions about the processes that regulate atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in Earth's climate and carbon cycle. Mission data will help scientists reduce uncertainties in predicting future carbon dioxide increases and make more accurate climate change predictions. Policymakers and business leaders can use the data to make more informed decisions that improve the quality of life on Earth. "It's critical that we understand the processes controlling carbon dioxide in our atmosphere today so we can predict how fast it will build up in the future and how quickly we'll have to adapt to climate change caused by carbon dioxide buildup," said David Crisp, principal investigator for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "The ...

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (2/4) :NASA's first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide is in final preparations for a 23rd February 2009 launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Carbon dioxide is the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth's climate. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory will provide the first complete picture of human and natural carbon dioxide sources as well as their "sinks," the places where carbon dioxide is pulled out of the atmosphere and stored. It will map the global geographic distribution of these sources and sinks and study their changes over time. The measurements will be combined with data from ground stations, aircraft and other satellites to help answer questions about the processes that regulate atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in Earth's climate and carbon cycle. Mission data will help scientists reduce uncertainties in predicting future carbon dioxide increases and make more accurate climate change predictions. Policymakers and business leaders can use the data to make more informed decisions that improve the quality of life on Earth. "It's critical that we understand the processes controlling carbon dioxide in our atmosphere today so we can predict how fast it will build up in the future and how quickly we'll have to adapt to climate change caused by carbon dioxide buildup," said David Crisp, principal investigator for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "The ...