diagram of the alimentary canal
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Answers:The accessory organs of digestion include the salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. As stated earlier, during the digestive process, the accessory organs produce secretions that assist the organs of the alimentary canal. Salivary Glands The salivary glands are located in the mouth. Within the salivary glands are two types of secretory cells, serous cells and mucous cells. The serous cells produce a watery fluid that contains a digestive juice called amylase. Amylase splits starch and glycerol into complex sugars. The mucous cells secrete a thick, sticky liquid called mucus. Mucus binds food particles together and acts to lubricate during swallowing. The fluids produced by the serous and mucous cells combine to form saliva. Approximately 1 liter of saliva is secreted daily. Pancreas The pancreas is a large, elongated gland lying posteriorly to the stomach. The digestive portion of the pancreas produces digestive juices (amylase, proteinase, and lipase) that are secreted through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. These digestive juices break down carbohydrates (amylase), proteins (proteinase), and fats (lipase) into simpler compounds. Liver The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is located in the upper abdomen on the right side, just under the diaphragm and superior to the duodenum and pylorus. Of the liver's many functions, the following are important to remember: It metabolizes carbohydrates, fats, and proteins preparatory to their use or excretion. It forms and excretes bile salts and pigment from bilirubin, a waste product of red blood cell destruction. It stores blood; glycogen; vitamins A, D, and B12; and iron. It detoxifies the end products of protein digestion and drugs. It produces antibodies and essential elements of the blood-clotting mechanism. Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, usually stained dark green by the bile it contains. It is located in the hollow underside of the liver. Its duct, the cystic duct, joins the hepatic duct from the liver to form the common bile duct, which enters the duodenum. The gallbladder receives bile from the liver and then concentrates and stores it. It secretes bile when the small intestine is stimulated by the entrance of fats.
Answers:`The Digestive System` - Digestion breaks down food into simpler substances so it can be used and absorbed into the body It takes place in the alimentary canal, (food tube), mainly in the stomach and small intestine Digested food is absorbed into the blood system http://www.kn.sbc.com/wired/fil/pages/listhumanorle.html
Answers:The parts of the alimentary canal: Mouth --> Pharynx --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> Small Intestine --> Large Intestine --> Anus Food begins breaking down in the mouth by both mechanical digestion(chewing) and chemical digestion(salivary enzymes such as amylase(which breaks down carbohydrates), etc.) Food then passes from the mouth down the pharynx, specifically the oropharynx. From the pharynx food passes down the esophagus by peristalsis(smooth muscle contractions). From the esophagus, food passes into the stomach where it is both chemically and mechanically digested. The stomach has three layers of muscle to "churn" the food(mechanical) and HCL(hydrochloric acid) and enzymes to chemically break down food. From the stomach, nutrients from the food are absorbed in the small intestine. After the small intestine, mostly water is absorbed in the large intestine and our intestinal flora digests undigested food(both small and large intestines are colonized by bacteria - they are harmless, we live in mutualism with them). From the intestines, we pass out the waste through the anus. All this is also done with the help of accessory digestive organs(organs where food does not pass though, e.g. liver, gallbladder, etc.) All parts of the alimentary canal(also known as GI tract) are made of a mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa(or adventia if the organ is retroperitoneal). These are called the histological layers and they differ from organ to organ. Only the small intestine has villi and microvilli - these are organ specific for absorption of nutrients. Put in some additional details if you need more specific info.
Answers:Upper gastrointestinal tract The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. The mouth contains the buccal mucosa, which contains the openings of the salivary glands; the tongue; and the tooth. Behind the mouth lies the pharynx, which leads to a hollow muscular tube, the esophagus. Peristalsis takes place, which is the contraction of muscles to propel the food down the esophagus which extends through the chest and pierces the diaphragm to reach the stomach. Lower gastrointestinal tract The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus. Bowel or intestine Small intestine, which has three parts: Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Large intestine, which has three parts: Cecum (the vermiform appendix is attached to the cecum). Colon (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid flexure) Rectum Anus The accessory organs include: salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Amino acids produced by digestion of proteins and peptides (In stomach and small intestine) and processed in liver.