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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a humanorganism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillioncells, the basic unit of life. These cells are organised biologically to eventually form the whole body.

Size, type and proportion

The average height of an adult male human (in developed countries) is about 1.7–1.8 m (5'7" to 5'11") tall and the adult female about 1.6–1.7 m (5'2" to 5'7") tall. This size is firstly determined by genes and secondly by diet. Body type and body composition are influenced by postnatal factors such as diet and exercise.


The organ systems of the body include the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, endocrine system, integumentary system, urinary system, lymphatic system, immune system, respiratory system, nervous system and reproductive system.

Cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system comprises the heart, veins, arteries and capillaries. The primary function of the heart is to circulate the blood, and through the blood, oxygen and vital minerals to the tissues and organs that comprise the body. The left side of the main organ (left ventricle and left atrium) is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body, while the right side (right ventricle and right atrium) pumps only to the lungs for re-oxygenation of the blood. The heart itself is divided into three layers called the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium, which vary in thickness and function.

Digestive system

The digestive system provides the body's means of processing food and transforming nutrients into energy. The digestive system consists of the - buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine ending in the rectum and anus. These parts together are called the alimentary canal (digestive tract).

Integumentary system

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, and is responsible for protecting the body from most physical and environmental factors. The largest organ in the body, is the skin. The integument also includes appendages, primarily the sweat and sebaceous glands, hair, nails and arrectores pili (tiny muscles at the root of each hair that cause goose bumps).

Lymphatic system

The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolise lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid).

Musculoskeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton, made by bones attached to other bones with joints, and skeletal muscle attached to the skeleton by tendons.


An adult human has approximately 206 distinct bones:

Spine and vertebral column (26)
Cranium (8)
Face (14)
Hyoid bone, sternum and ribs (26)
Upper extremities (70)
Lower extremities (62)

Nervous system

The nervous system consists of cells that communicate information about an organism's surroundings and itself.

Human heart

The human heart is a muscular organ that provides a continuous bloodcirculation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body. The heart is an organ but made up of a collection of different tissues. It is divided into four main chambers: the two upper chambers are called the left and right atria and two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles.There is a thick wall of muscle separating the right side and the left side of the heart called the septum. Normally with each beat the right ventricle pumps the same amount of blood into the lungs that the left ventricle pumps out into the body. Physicians commonly refer to the right atrium and right ventricle together as the right heart and to the left atrium and ventricle as the left heart.

The electric energy that stimulates the heart occurs in the sinoatrial node, which produces a definite potential and then discharges, sending an impulse across the atria. In the atria the electrical signal move from cell to cell while in the ventricles the signal is carried by specialized tissue called the Purkinje fibers which then transmit the electric charge to the myocardium

The human heart and its disorders (cardiopathies) are studied primarily by cardiology.


The human heart has a mass of between 250 and 350 grams and is about the size of a fist.

It is enclosed in a double-walled protective sac called the pericardium. The superficial part of this sac is called the fibrous pericardium. This sac protects the heart, anchors its surrounding structures, and prevents overfilling of the heart with blood.

The outer wall of the human heart is composed of three layers. The outer layer is called the epicardium, or visceral pericardium since it is also the inner wall of the pericardium. The middle layer is called the myocardium and is composed of muscle which contracts. The inner layer is called the endocardium and is in contact with the blood that the heart pumps. Also, it merges with the inner lining (endothelium) of blood vessels and covers heart valves.

The human heart has four chambers, two superior atria and two inferior ventricles. The atria are the receiving chambers and the ventricles are the discharging chambers.

The pathways of blood through the human heart are part of the pulmonary and systemic circuits. These pathways include the tricuspid valve, the mitral valve, the aortic valve, and the pulmonary valve. The mitral and tricuspid valves are classified as the atrioventricular (AV) valves. This is because they are found between the atria and ventricles. The aortic and pulmonary semi-lunar valves separate the left and right ventricle from the pulmonary artery and the aorta respectively. These valves are attached to the chordae tendinae (literally the heartstrings), which anchors the valves to the papilla muscles of the heart.

The interatrioventricular septum separates the left atrium and ventricle from the right atrium and ventricle, dividing the heart into two functionally separate and anatomically distinct units.


Blood flows through the heart in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles, and out of the great arteries, or the aorta for example. Blood is prevented from flowing backwards by the tricuspid,bicuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valve.

The heart acts as a double pump. The function of the right side of the heart (see right heart) is to collect de-oxygenated blood, in the right atrium, from the body (via superior and inferior vena cavae) and pump it, via the right ventricle, into the lungs (pulmonary circulation) so that carbon dioxide can be dropped off and oxygen picked up (gas exchange). This happens through the passive process of diffusion.

The left side (see left heart) collects oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium. From the left atrium the blood moves to the left ventricle which pumps it out to the body (via the aorta).

On both sides, the lower ventricles are thicker and stronger than the upper atria. The muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation.

Starting in the right atrium, the blood flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Here, it is pumped out of the pulmonary semilunar valve and travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. From there, blood flows back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. It then travels through the mitral valve to the left ventricle, from where it is pumped through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta and to the rest of the body. The (relatively) deoxygenated blood finally returns to the heart through the inferior vena cava and From Yahoo Answers

Question:Can someone please give me a detailed description of the process of blood flow through the arteries throughout the entire body for my A&P II class? Some of these diagrams are confusing me and I would like to hear it in 'people's terms'. I would greatly appreciate any help. Thanks! Thank you guys so much for the answers. It really helped me A LOT! :)

Answers:Is it just for the arteries? I will try to sum it up in a nutshell (in my own words) Arteries are a type of blood vessel, one of the 5. They are also the largest, and the largest blood vessel is the Aorta. The red blood cells in the blood consist of 55% blood plasma, which contain salts, gases (oxygen from the lungs, C02 from cellular respiration), water, nutrients, and hormones. the 45% is formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Red blood cells contain Hemoglobin, which is useful in the respiratory system. White blood cells fight infections, through phagocytosis (engulfing bacteria), and platelets, which help in the formation of blood clotting, so healing wounds. Plasma proteins are very important in the composition of blood, because they are too big to pass through walls of blood vessels, so they exert osmotic pressure, which will make sense in what I am going to explain later. I am going to be as descriptive as I can in my own words, cause I am not sure what you do or do not get. Anyways, before ANY blood flow can happen, the heart has to distribute the blood. This is how - In the right atrium of the heart, there is an SA node, and an AV node. The medulla oblongata sends an impulse to the SA node, it contracts first, and sends an impulse to the AV node (in the right ventricle), which contracts secondly, and from there, an impulse gets sent to the Purkinje Fibers of the heart, to get the actual ventricles to contract. This is why you don't have to think about beating every second or so for your heart. The Systemic System (where blood is distributed throughout the entire body, in arteries and veins), is where Dirty, de-oxygenated, unrich (has poor amounts of nutrients) blood comes into the pulmonary system (the heart). What happens here is from the veins throughout the body, they are carrying this type of blood (deoxygenated) to the heart, via the posterior vena cava, or the anterior vena cava (top part of the heart, and bottom part). From here, they go through the right atrium, down to the left atrium through the AV valve (which prevents the blood from inverting to a previous heart chamber), From the left atrium, the blood goes through the pulmonary trunk, and gets there by the Semi-Lunar Valve (same function as the AV valve), and eventually branches out into the pulmonary arteries. ***The pulmonary arteries take the unclean, deoxygenated, unrich blood to the lungs, where there are capillaries, and gas exchange occurs so the red blood cells are able to pick up nutrients such as oxygen. Once the blood is oxygenated, clean, and rich in nutrients, they travel back to the left atrium, via the pulmonary veins. From here, there is an AV valve that separates the atrium from the ventricle yet again, to prevent inversion of the blood. *******From the left atrium, the blood is pumped out to the Aorta (the largest blood vessel / artery in the human body)******** Arteries undergo the highest blood pressure, so the Aorta, undergoing extreme measures of blood pressure, strongly pumps out blood to the entire body. Here is where we get into it. As blood is flowing through various arteries (and veins going back to the heart), they go through capillaries, where gas-exchange occurs. This is where cells pick up the oxygen required for cellular respiration, which is a cell's form of ATP, as well as other nutrients. The cells also give out their wastes from it (02 + glucose ---------> C02 + H20 + Energy). Capillaries are one cell thick, which is a great reason why diffusion of the gases occurs so well. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration. It doesn't require ATP, because its going from HIGH to LOW, if you think of it that way, down a concentration gradient. Active transport, on the other hand, requires ATP, since it is going from a lower to higher concentration. Capillaries are the site for exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes between the tissues and the circulatory system. On a side note - Before reaching capillaries, arteries branch off into arterioles, which are a branch of arteries, and blood flow slows down. In the arteries (right before hitting the arterioles) the blood pressure is higher then the osmotic pressure (BP > OP), so H20 leaves the blood plasma. After the arterioles, and finally hitting the capillaries, there is an equal net force between blood pressure, and osmotic pressure. In the capillaries, as mentioned before, the cells pick up oxygen, and they give C02 to the blood (hence why the blood loses nutrients, and becomes deoxygenated, since C02 creates that). After the capillaries, they reach venules, and veins (OP > BP). In the veins, the osmotic pressure is higher then the blood pressure, so H20 comes into the blood plasma. There are major arteries in the body which are ALL supplying oxygenated blood - there is the Subclavian artery (which supplies blood from the aorta to both arms), Iliac Artery (which supplie

Question:i want to know complete body system. e.g where heart, lungs located etc.. with brain and veins i didn't find any website and diagram here. nt in innerbody.com i found many diagrams but not a complete system and organs in a one diagram

Answers:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSOVNSEcKIE this has a diagram

Question:Oils and Waxes on the human skin help to A. Remove excess salts from cells B Reduce water loss from the evaporation C Increase active transport between cells D Carry oxygen through the cell membrane The net result of the kidneys' activities is A nitrogenous wastes are removed from the blood as urea B blood pressure is partially regulated C Water-salt balances and blood pH are regulated D All of the above Exchange of nutrients occurs between fluid and cells. This statement is a reasonable description of A An open circulatory system B a closed circulatory system C both open and closed circulatory systems D Neither open nor closed circulatory systems Many capillaries are found A in the lungs only B in the brain only C in the brain, heart, and lungs only D through out all organs Much of the fluid that leaks into the body tissues returns to the circulatory system via A arteries B veins C heart D lymph vessels

Answers:B D A D D

Question:I need Help! Book is called: STRUCTURE AND FUCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY. MY BOOK WAS STOLEN AND I NEED HELP!? i NEED REAL HELP PLEASE MY BOOK HAS BEEN STOLEN. pLEASE NO NEGATIVITY. MY CLASS ENDS SOON. Anybpdy with the book please help. By Memmler CHApTER 17 Questions 1. The wave-like movement of the digestive tract will is called_________. 2.AThe small intestine is connecte to the posterior abdominal wall by_________. 3. the liver can store glucose in the form of_______. 4 THe parotid glands secret_______. 5. A tooth is composed mainly of a hard calcified substance called 11. The teeth break up food into small parts by a process called.....A. Absorbtion, B. Degultition, C. Ingestion, D. Mastication 12. Hydrocholoric acid and pepsinare secreted by the......A. Salivary glands,B. Stomach, C.Pancreas, D. Liver 13.The double layer of peritoneum that extends from the lower border of the stomach and hangs over the intestine is the.......A. Greater omentum, B., Lesser omentum, C. Mesentery, D. Mesocolon 14. The soft, fleshy v-shaped mass of tissue that hangs from the soft palate is the...A.Epiglottis, B.Esophageal hiatus, C.uvula, D.Gingiva 15. The entrance of the trachea is guarded during swallowing by the ........A. uvula, B.Epiglottis, C. Gingiva, D. Bolus CHAPTER 18 1. Building glycogen from glucose is an example of______. 2. The amount of energy needed to maintain life functions while at rest is_____. 3. Reserves of gluscose are strored in liver and muscle as_____ 4. Them ost important area of the brain for temperature regulation is the______. 5. Minerals needed in extremely small amounts are referred to as______> 11. During amino acid catabolism, nitrogen is removed by.....A.Oxidation, B. The glycenic effect, C. Lysis, D. Deamination 12. Which of the following would have the lowest glycenic effect?.....A. Glucose, B. Sucrose, .C. Lactose, D. Starch 13. Alcohol is catabolized by the A. Small intestine, B.Liver, C. Pancreas, D. Spleen 14. Amino acids that cannot be made by metabolism are said to be .......A. Essential B. Nonessential C. Antioxidants, D. Free radicals Chapter 19 1. Each kidney is located in the ____Space. 2. THe renal artery, renal vein, and ureter connect to the kidney at the______. 3. The ureters and urethra open at the part of the bladder called the_______. 4. The amount of dissolved substances in urine is indicated by its______. 5. Substances in the blood that prevent sharp changes in hydrogen ion concentration are called_____. 11. The functional unit of the renal system is the.....A. Renal capsule, B. Kidney, Nephron, D. Juxtaglomerular apparatus 12.Fluid moves out of the glomerulus by...A. Filtraion, B. Diffusion, C. OSmosis, D. Active transport 13. One's ability to delay urination is due to voluntary control of the....A. Trigone, B. Internal urethral sphincter, C. External urethral Spincter, D. Urinary Meatus 14. Body water contest is greatest in..A. Infatnts,B. Children, C. Young adults, D. Elderly Adults 15. Fluid located in the spaces between the cells is called......A. Cytoplasm, B. Plasma, C. Interstitial fluid, D. Lymph

Answers:the thing is....that in the time it took you to typle this you could have searched it on the web...

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