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Determiner (linguistics)

A determiner is a noun-modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun-phrase in the context, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This function is usually performed by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.

## Function

In most Indo-European languages, determiners are either independent words or clitics that precede the rest of the noun-phrase. In other languages, determiners are prefixed or suffixed to the noun, or even change the noun's form. For example, in Swedishbok "book", when definite, becomes boken "the book" (suffixed definite articles are common in Scandinavian languages).

Some constructions, such as those that use names of school subjects ("Physics uses mathematics"), don't use a determiner. This condition is called the "zero determiner" instance.

X-bar theory contends that every noun has a corresponding determiner. In a case where a noun does not have a pronounced determiner, X-bar theory hypothesizes the presence of a zero article.

### English determiners

The determiner function is usually performed by the determiner class of words, but can also be filled by words from other entities:

1. Basic determiners are words from the determiner class (e.g. the girl, those pencils) or determiner phrases (e.g. almost all people, more than two problems).
2. Subject determiners are possessive noun phrases (e.g. his daughter, the boy's friend).
3. Minor determiners are plain NPs (e.g. what colour carpet, this size shoes) and prepositional phrases (under twenty meters, up to twelve people).

## Determiner Class

A determiner establishes the reference of a noun or noun-phrase, including quantity, rather than its attributes as expressed by adjectives. Despite this tendency, determiners have a variety of functions including, in English, modifiers in adjective phrases and determiner phrases, and even markers of coordination.

This word class, or part of speech, exists in many languages, including English, though most English dictionaries still classify determiners under other parts of speech. Determiners usually include articles, and may include items like demonstratives, possessive determiners, quantifiers, and cardinal numbers, depending on the language.

### English determiners

Determiners, in English, form a closed class of words that number about 50 (not counting the cardinal numerals) and include:

• Alternative determiners: another,other, somebodyelse,different
• Articles: a, an,the
• Cardinal numbers: zero,one,two,fifty,infinite, etc.
• Degree determiners/Partitive determiners: many,much,few,little,several,most
• Demonstratives: this,that,these,those,which
• Disjunctive determiners: either,neither
• Distributive determiners: each,every
• Elective determiners: any,either,whichever
• economics, profit maximization is the (short run) process by which a firm determines the price and output level that returns the greatest profit. There are several approaches to this problem. The total revenue&ndash;total cost method relies on the fact that profit equals revenue minus cost, and the marginal revenue&ndash;marginal cost method is based on the fact that total profit in a perfectly competitive market reaches its maximum point where marginal revenue equals marginal cost.

## Basic definitions

Any costs incurred by a firm may be classed into two groups: fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are incurred by the business at any level of output, including zero output. These may include equipment maintenance, rent, wages, and general upkeep. Variable costs change with the level of output, increasing as more product is generated. Materials consumed during production often have the largest impact on this category. Fixed cost and variable cost, combined, equal total cost.

Revenue is the amount of money that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services (as opposed to monies from security sales such as equity shares or debt issuances).

Marginal cost and revenue, depending on whether the calculus approach is taken or not, are defined as either the change in cost or revenue as each additional unit is produced, or the derivative of cost or revenue with respect to quantity output. It may also be defined as the addition to total cost or revenue as output increase by a single unit. For instance, taking the first definition, if it costs a firm 400 USD to produce 5 units and 480 USD to produce 6, the marginal cost of the sixth unit is approximately 80 dollars, although this is more accurately stated as the marginal cost of the 5.5th unit due to linear interpolation. Calculus is capable of providing more accurate answers if regression equations can be provided.

## Total revenue - total cost method

To obtain the profit maximising output quantity, we start by recognizing that profit is equal to total revenue (TR) minus total cost (TC). Given a table of costs and revenues at each quantity, we can either compute equations or plot the data directly on a graph. Finding the profit-maximizing output is as simple as finding the output at which profit reaches its maximum. That is represented by output Q in the diagram.

There are two graphical ways of determining that Q is optimal. First, the profit curve is at its maximum at this point (A). Secondly, at the point (B) the tangent on the total cost curve (TC) is parallel to the total revenue curve (TR), meaning that the surplus of revenue net of costs (B,C) is at its greatest. Because total revenue minus total costs is equal to profit, the line segment C,B is equal in length to the line segment A,Q.

Computing the price at which to sell the product requires knowledge of the firm's demand curve. The price at which quantity demanded equals profit-maximizing output is the optimum price to sell the product.

## Marginal revenue-marginal cost method

An alternative argument says that for each unit sold, marginal profit (MÏ€) equals marginal revenue (MR) minus marginal cost (MC). Then, if marginal revenue is greater than marginal cost, marginal profit is positive, and if marginal revenue is less than marginal cost, marginal profit is negative. When marginal revenue equals marginal cost, marginal profit is zero. Since total profit increases when marginal profit is positive and total profit decreases when marginal profit is negative, it must reach a maximum where marginal profit is zero - or where marginal cost equals marginal revenue. If there are two points where this occurs, maximum profit is achieved where the producer has collected positive profit up until the intersection of MR and MC (where zero profit is collected), but would not continue to after, as opposed to vice versa, which represents a profit minimum. In calculus terms, the correct intersection of MC and MR will occur when:

\frac{dMR}{dQ} < \frac{dMC}{dQ}

The intersection of MR and MC is shown in the next diagram as point A. If the industry is perfectly competitive (as is assumed in the diagram), the firm faces a demand curve (D) that is identical to its Marginal revenue curve (MR), and this is a horizontal line at a price determined by industry supply and demand. Average total costs are represented by curve ATC. Total economic profit are represented by area P,A,B,C. The optimum quantity (Q) is the same as the optimum quantity (Q) in the first diagram.

If the firm is operating in a non-competitive market, minor changes would have to be made to the diagrams. For example, the Marginal Revenue would have a negative gradient, due to the overall market demand curve. In a non-competitive environment, more complicated profit maximization solutions involve the use of game theory.

## Maximizing revenue method

In some cases a firm's demand and cost conditions are such that marginal profits are greater than zero for all levels of production. In this case the MÏ€ = 0 rule has to be modified and the firm should maximize revenue. In other words the profit maximizing quantity and price can be determined by setting marginal revenue equal to zero. Marginal revenue equals zero when the marginal revenue curve has reached its maximum value. An example would be a scheduled airline flight. The marginal costs of flying the route are negligible. The airline would maximize profits by filling all the seats. The airline would determine the \Pi_max conditions by maximizing revenues.

## Changes in total costs and profit maximization

A firm maximizes profit by operating where marginal revenue equal marginal costs. A change in fixed costs has no effect on the profit maximizing output or price. The firm merely treats short term fixed costs as sunk costs and continues to operate as before. This can be confirmed graphically. Using the diagram illustrating the total cost total revenue method the firm maximizes profits at the point where the slope of the total cost line and total revenue line are equal. A change in total cost would cause the total cost curve to shift up by the amount of

Question:Can anyone list the determinant of aggregate supply and aggregate demand and their definitions?

Answers:Changes in the following non-price level factors or determinants cause changes in aggregate demand and shifts of the entire aggregate demand (AD) curve. Autonomous consumption (autonomous consumer spending) Ca, which depends upon: * consumer nominal wealth * consumer expectations and confidence concerning job security and future income * money supply * autonomous taxes Ta (e.g., sales and property taxes) Planned investment spending I, which depends upon: * real interest rates (i.e., changes in interest rates not caused by changes in the price level) * business profit expectations or the expected rate of return * business taxes * money supply Changes in the following factors will change SR and LR aggregate supply and shift the SRAS and LRAS curves: Resource endowments Permanent changes in international trade barriers in resource markets Technology and education Permanent changes in business regulations and taxes Temporary or short run changes in input prices and resource costs will shift the SRAS curve without changing the full employment level of real GDP and shifting the LRAS curve.

Question:Include graphs and list down the factors that contribute to these changes.

Answers:In economics, supply and demand describe market relations between prospective sellers and buyers of a good. The supply and demand model determines price and quantity sold in the market. The model is fundamental in microeconomic analysis of buyers and sellers and of their interactions in a market. It is also used as a point of departure for other economic models and theories. The model predicts that in a competitive market, price will function to equalize the quantity demanded by consumers and the quantity supplied by producers, resulting in an economic equilibrium of price and quantity. The model incorporates other factors changing such equilibrium as reflected in a shift of demand or supply. all you are seeking and more at web page below

Question:My textbook says that aggregate demand is "the relationship between real GDP demanded and the price level in the economy" while aggregate supply is "the relationship between the price level and the total amount of real output (RGDP) that firms are willing to produce." So are they ratios or something? On the internet, however, people say that aggregate demand = total demand and aggregate supply = total supply. What the heck is going on? Which is right and what does the book definition mean?

Answers:The meaning is the same as stated in your and my textbook. It is not a ratio, but absolute value and real.

Question:I will award "best answer" to the person who explains it in the simplest possible term... I have already read explanations, but I think Im looking in to much, and I have no idea what is actually is!

Answers:Aggregate demand is the sum of all demand for final goods and services at a given time and price level. Aggregate supply is the sum of all final goods and services that will be supplied at a given time and price level.