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Egyptian pyramids

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.

There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.

The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BCE–2611 BCE) which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.

The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built.

The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Historical development

By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.

The second historically documented Egyptian pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, who planned what Egyptologists believe to be a tomb for the pharaoh Djoser. Imhotep is credited with being the first to conceive the notion of stacking mastabas on top of each other — creating an edifice composed of a number of "steps" that decreased in size towards its apex. The result was the Step Pyramid of Djoser— which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.

The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. It was during this time that the most famous pyramids, those near Giza, were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed.

Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata. While Napatan rule was brief and ceased in 661 BC, the Egyptian influence made an indelible impression, and during the later Sudanese Kingdom of Meroe (approximately in the period between 300 BC–300 AD) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred indigenous, but Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities.

Pyramid symbolism

The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape of a pyramid is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at DahshurThe Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining.

While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles that might have given rise to them. One theory is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine."

The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens. One of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky. This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.

All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.

Number and location of pyramids

In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids, in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered. As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.

The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the "Headless Pyramid", was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert sands subsequent to Lepsius' survey. It was only found again during an archaeological dig conducted in 2008.

Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by desert sands. If visible at all they may appear as little more than mounds of rubble. As a consequence archaeologists are continuing to identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures.

The most recent pyramid to be discovered is that of Queen Sesheshet, mother of 6th Dynasty Pharaoh Teti, located at Saqqara. The discovery was announced by From Yahoo Answers

Question:Im talking about energy pyramids. I need at least 3 ways a land food chain and ocean food chain are different and 3 ways they are the same! HELP! NEEDED 2MORROW!!!!!!!

Answers:Who is your teacher? Email Me her name cuz im pretty sure she is mine too.

Question:Im a freshman in high school and our mid terms are coming up in about three days. My bio teacher gave us the questions to the exam but there are a few questions i dont understand. 1. "using a energy pyramid with trophic levels explain what happens to the energy within the pyramid" 2. "Draw a diagram of an energy pyramid with at least 4 trophic levels and label each level" 3" explain fully the carbon cycle using all correct termonology" 4. " Explain how latitude changes and elevation changes can demonstrate similar climate changes. Note: Remember the 3 factors that most influence climate" 5. "what is metabolism, what are two types of metabolism and explain each type" Please Help!!

Answers:1. http://www.stevetrash.com/lessons/lesart/epyramid.gif Most biomass is on the bottom. When mouse eats 10 grams of grass, it only gets heavier by 1 gram. When a snake eats one 10-gram mouse, it gets heavier by 1 gram. So to make a snake grow by one gram, you have to spend 100 grams of grass. 2. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/ecology/images/pyra5.gif If you ignore the "energy stored by" you get the name of each trophic level. By the way, the 4th trophic level consumer is also called a tertiary consumer (final consumers is fine too). Also, primary consumer is secondary producer, and so on. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle 4. High latitude=high altitude. 100 feet up in altitude is like 1000 miles up in latitude. 3 factors=altitude, latitude, precipitation 5. Metabolism is "is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life" (wiki). Catabolism=breaking down complex molecules for energy (think "canibalism"). Anabolism=using energy to build complex molecules.

Question:I am doing a Biome Project on the desert and I need to know some examples of plants that live in the desert biome and an explaination of one adaption that the plant would need to be able to live in the desert oh yea i also need 4 different plants and i already have the cactus for i need 3 other ones left

Answers:Two of the main adaptations of plants in arid environments is having an economical water management system, and maximizing the energy gain from the process of photosynthesis. Some plants, called xerophytes, have adapted their physical structure to suit the rigors such a harsh environment. These plants have adapted by having smaller leaves, grow compactly and close to the ground, and a non-porous covering on their leaves such as wax. Hair on the leaves of plants helps to reduce the evaporation of moisture from the surface of leaves by reflecting sunlight and inhibiting air movement. The process of photosynthesis requires both carbon dioxide and water to create energy for the plant. Water is usually absorbed through the roots, and carbon dioxide is absorbed through tiny pores in the plant called stomata. Through the stomata the plant is able to obtain carbon dioxide, but it also loses water by evaporation when the pores are open. Some plants cope with the water loss problem by having fewer stomata, or by having the stomata only open at night when it is cooler. All of these adaptations help to reduce evaporation and transpiration of water. Differences in cellular structure and function, as well as in the basic process of creating carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide also help plants to survive in arid conditions. The common process of photosynthesis is called the C3 cycle because carbon is fixed by the plant into a three carbon compound (phosphoglyceric acid) in order to make carbohydrates. Another process of photosynthesis used by desert plants such as bunchgrass fixes the carbon into a four carbon compound (malate or aspartate acid). This C4 process, although not used by many plants, is more efficient in maximizing energy gain than normal photosynthesis. Succulent plants such as stonecrop (Sedum spp.) and cactus can store water in the specialized tissues of plant cells called vacuoles. Some desert plants the cells, unlike in the ordinary varieties of cultivated plants, can also survive extreme dehyration then rehydrate when water is available with little or no damage to the cells. Other plants, called phreatophytes, have adapted root systems that are long enough to reach underground water sources. An example of an extensive root system is the tall sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), whose roots can grow up to 25 meters in diameter. Because tall sagebrush is able to utilize underground water sources it can remain photosynthetic throughout the summer, and is one of the latest blooming of all plants in the Columbia Basin. Other plants cope with the extremes in temperature and rainfall by becoming dormant during the winter or droughts, and escaping difficult times all together. Annuals and ephemerals grow only when conditions are at optimum. Some seeds can remain dormant for years and even decades, waiting to germinate when the conditions are favorable. Members of the Lilicae family and others such as the genus Lomatium, store energy within their roots when they bloom in spring and set seed. This stored energy is enough to survive for most of the year in a dormant state. By late summer the upper parts of the plant and leaves dry out above the ground, leaving none of the plant's soft tissues exposed to heat and dryness of summer. By the middle of summer many plants in a desert environment are dormant, and show few signs of life. Another strategy of drought avoidance can be seen near any stream or wet area. Some plants only germinate and grow in riparian areas, forming the stark contrast in vegetation seen near any water source in arid regions.


Answers:Because of the large amount of energy that is lost at each trophic level, the amount of energy transferred gets less and less. There cant be too many levels because the animals at the end of the chain would not get enough energy to stay alive. Primary Producers (100%) --> Primary consumers (10%) ->Secondary Consumers (0.1%) In some cases you can have tertiary consumers and quaternary ones. (total five levels) @}--;- .

From Youtube

Tesla Functioning Pyramids Turn Deserts into Paradise :... Humans are Cosmically Connected To Earth & Everything by Natural Sun Nano Electricity = AC DC Wires are Devils Veins Tesla Free Wireless Electricity Before Niagara Falls .. everything is wireless, always was... wires are to changethe natural magnetic grid of Earth and humans. = 1901 Hydro Water Devils Veins Reroute Rivers Kings Walkway El Camino del Rey = Lake Erie has changed since 1600 the Rise in Erie Hw Longfellow Brebeuf Cat People Subterranean River To Lake Erie New York Times 1891 Imagine a tunnel more than ten storeys underground, a hundred years old, bricklined, wet, and completely inaccessible save by descending through a narrow slit in its ceiling thirty feet above the floor, and then returning up the same rope you came down. El Caminito del Rey (English: The King's little pathway) is a walkway or via ferrata, now fallen into disrepair, pinned along the steep walls of a narrow gorge in El Chorro, near lora in the district of M laga, Spain. The name is often shortened to Camino del Rey. In 1901 it became obvious that workers at the hydroelectric power plants at Chorro Falls and Gaitanejo Falls needed a walkway to cross between the falls, to provide for transport of materials, and for the inspection and maintenance of the channel. Construction of the walkway took four years and it was finished in 1905. December 26, 1900 A strange disappearance supply ship Hesperus The mystery was later the subject of a 1980 chamber opera by Peter Maxwell Davies, The ...

Behind the Biology: Energy Pyramids and the10% Rule :Behind the Biology: Energy Pyramids and the 10% Rule