depletion of non renewable resources
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A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum
Oil depletion occurs in the second half of the production curve of an oil well, oil field, or the average of total world oil production. The Hubbert peak theory makes predictions of production rates based on prior discovery rates and anticipated production rates. Hubbert curves predict that the production curves of non-renewing resources approximate a bell curve. Thus, when the peak of production is passed, production rates enter an exponential decline.
The American Petroleum Institute estimated in 1999 the world's oil supply would be depleted between 2062 and 2094, assuming total world oil reserves at between 1.4 and 2 trillion barrels and consumption at 80 million barrels per day. In 2004, total world reserves were estimated to be 1.25 trillion barrels and daily consumption was about 85 million barrels, shifting the estimated oil depletion year to 2057. A study published in the journal Energy Policy by researchers from Oxford University, however, predicted demand would surpass supply by 2015 (unless constrained by strong recession pressures caused by reduced supply or government intervention).
The United States Energy Information Administration predicted in 2006 that world consumption of oil will increase to 98.3 million barrels per day (mbd) in 2015 and 118 mbd in 2030. With 2009 world oil consumption at 84.4 mbd, reaching the projected 2015 level of consumption would represent an average annual increase between 2009 and 2015 of 2.7% per year while EIA's own figures show declining consumption and declining supplies during the 2005-2009 period.
The world's oil supply is fixed because petroleum is naturally formed far too slowly to be replaced at the rate at which it is being extracted. Over many millions of years, plankton, bacteria, and other plant and animal matter become buried in sediments on the ocean floor. When conditions are right â€“ a lack of oxygen for decomposition, and sufficient depth and temperature of burial â€“ these organic remains are converted into petroleum compounds, while the sediment accompanying them is converted into sandstone, siltstone, and other porous sedimentary rock. When capped by impermeable rocks such as shale, salt, or igneous intrusions, they form the petroleum reservoirs which are exploited today.
Production decline models
Oil production decline occurs in a predictable manner based on geological circumstances, governmental policies, and engineering practices. The shape of the decline curve varies depending upon whether one considers a well, a field, a set of fields, or the world.
Oil well production decline
Oil well production curves typically end in an exponential decline. At natural rates, oil well production curves appear similar to a bell curve, a phenomenon known as the Hubbert curve. The typical decline is a rapid drop in production, and eventually a leveling off to a point at which they no longer produce profitable amounts. Such wells are referred to as marginal or stripper wells.
The shape of production curve of an oil well can be affected by a number of factors:
- * Well may be restricted by choice by lack of market demand or government regulation. This flattens the peak of the curve, but will not change the well's total production significantly.
- * Hydraulic fracturing (fracing) or acidizing may be used to cause a sharp spike in production, and may increase the recoverable reserves of a given well.
- * The field may undergo a secondary or tertiary recovery project, discussed in the next section.
Oil field production decline
Each individual oil well is a portion of a larger fixed area oil field. As with individual wells, discovery and production amounts of oil fields generally average to a similar bell shaped production curve. Eventually, when the field is completely drilled out, a field's production goes into a sharp decline as the average production of its wells enter decline. As this decline levels off, production can continue at relatively low rates. A number of oil fields in the U.S. have been producing for over 100 years.
Oil field production curves can be modified by a number of factors:
- * Production may be restricted by market conditions or government regulation.
- * A secondary recovery project, such as water or gas injection, can repressurize the field and improve the production rate temporarily. However, it will not change the total production amount over the life of the field. Eventually the field will go into a steeper than normal decline.
- * the field may undergo an enhanced oil recovery project, such as drilling of wells for injection of solvents, carbon dioxide, or steam. This can be very expensive but allows more oil to be coaxed out of the rock, increasing the ultimate production of the field.
Multi-field production decline
Most oil is found in a small number of very large oil fields. If oil fields are discovered at a constant rate until they have all been found, the combined production of fields will yield a curve such as the one at right. Production starts off slowly, rises faster and faster, then slows down and flattens until it reaches a peak. After the production peak, production enters an exponential decline, eventually flattening out. Oil production may never actually reach zero, but eventually becomes very low. Factors which can modify this curve include:
- * Inadequate demand for oil, which reduces steepness of the curve and pushes its peak into the future. <
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Answers:Renewable: hydroelectric-Niagara Falls, wood, solar, any falling or running water which includes wave power, tidal power, wind, geothermal, resource recovery-burning garbage at 2500oF and using the heat for heat or to generate electricity, this is hot enough to beakdown all air pollutants such as those from burning plastics, fermentation of plant wastes, production of methane from various sources, such as animal, algae, etc Nonrenewable: coal, oil, natural gas, oil shale, fission, coal gasification, coal liquification, tar sands,
Answers:Renewable: Solar Wind Hydropower Tourism Timber, if it is managed properly Non-Renewable: Coal Petroleum Natural gas Arable land Marble Pumice Check out the links below for additional resources.
Answers:Renewable: water, trees (wood etc), energy (solar, wind, hydro), oxygen (to breathe) Non-renewable: oil, food, plastics, glass, etc. (practically everything else)
Answers:A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown. Often fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are considered non-renewable resources, as they do not naturally re-form at a rate that makes the way we use them sustainable. This is as opposed to natural resources such as timber, which re-grows naturally and can, in theory, be harvested sustainably at a constant rate without depleting the existing resource pool. In this sense, all mined resources, stone, metals, uranium, and various other materials and minerals should be considered non-renewable.