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Alcohol dependence

Alcohol dependence, as described in the DSM-IV, is a psychiatric diagnosis (a substance related disorder DSM-IV) describing an entity in which an individual uses alcohol despite significant areas of dysfunction, evidence of physical dependence, and/or related hardship. Definition and diagnosis According to the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, at least three out of seven of the following criteria must be manifest during a 12 month period: Tolerance Withdrawal symptoms or clinically defined Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Use in larger amounts or for longer periods than intended Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down on alcohol use Time is spent obtaining alcohol or recovering from effects Social, occupational and recreational pursuits are given up or reduced because of alcohol use Use is continued despite knowledge of alcohol-related harm (physical or psychological) History and epidemiology About 12% of American adults have had an alcohol dependence problem at some time in their life. Alcohol dependence is acknowledged by the American Medical Association as a disease because it has a characteristic set of signs and symptoms and a progressive course. The contemporary definition of alcohol dependence is still based upon early research. There has been considerable scientific effort over the past several decades to identify and understand the core features of alcohol dependence. This work began in 1976 when the British psychiatrist Griffith Edwards and his American colleague Milton M. Gross collaborated to produce a formulation of what had previously been understood as ‘alcoholism’ – the alcohol dependence syndrome. The alcohol dependence syndrome was seen as a cluster of seven elements that concur. It was argued that not all elements may be present in every case, but the picture is sufficiently regular and coherent to permit clinical recognition. The syndrome was also considered to exist in degrees of severity rather than as a categorical absolute. Thus, the proper question is not ‘whether a person is dependent on alcohol’, but ‘how far along the path of dependence has a person progressed’. Screening tools The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is the most accurate alcohol screening tool for identifying potential alcohol misuse, including dependence. It was developed by the World Health Organisation, designed initially for use in primary healthcare settings with supporting guidance . Its use has replaced older screening tools such as CAGE but there are many shorter alcohol screening tools, mostly derived from the AUDIT. The Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SAD-Q) is a more specific twenty item inventory for assessing the presence and severity of alcohol dependence. Comparisons with other alcohol-related disorders Because only 3 of the 7 DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence are required, not all patients meet the same criteria and therefore not all have the same symptoms and problems related to drinking. Not everyone with alcohol dependence, therefore, experiences physiological dependence. Alcohol dependence is differentiated from alcohol abuse by the presence of symptoms such as tolerance and withdrawal. Both alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse are sometimes referred to by the less specific term alcoholism. However, many definitions of alcoholism exist, and only some are compatible with alcohol abuse. There are two major differences between alcohol dependence and alcoholism as generally accepted by the medical community. Alcohol dependence refers to an entity in which only alcohol is the involved addictive agent. Alcoholism refers to an entity in which alcohol or any cross-tolerant addictive agent is involved. In alcohol dependence, remission as defined within DSM-IV can be attained despite continued use of alcohol. That is, a patient can be in full sustained remission yet still be drinking alcohol so long as the patient does not meet the noted criteria. In alcoholism, patients are generally not presumed to be in remission unless they are abstinent from alcohol. The following elements are the template for which the degree of dependence is judged: Narrowing of the drinking repertoire. Increased salience of the need for alcohol over competing needs and responsibilities. An acquired tolerance to alcohol. Withdrawal symptoms. Relief or avoidance of withdrawal symptoms by further drinking. Subjective awareness of compulsion to drink. Reinstatement after abstinence.

Sample space

In probability theory, the sample space or universal sample space, often denoted S, Ω, or U (for "universe"), of an experiment or random trial is the set of all possible outcomes. For example, if the experiment is tossing a coin, the sample space is the set {head, tail}. For tossing a single six-sided die, the sample space is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. For some kinds of experiments, there may be two or more plausible sample spaces available. For example, when drawing a card from a standard deck of 52 playing cards, one possibility for the sample space could be the rank (Ace through King), while another could be the suit (clubs, diamonds, hearts, or spades). A complete description of outcomes, however, would specify both the denomination and the suit, and a sample space describing each individual card can be constructed as the Cartesian product of the two sample spaces noted above.

In an elementary approach to probability, any subset of the sample space is usually called an event. However, this gives rise to problems when the sample space is infinite, so that a more precise definition of event is necessary. Under this definition only measurable subsets of the sample space, constituting a σ-algebra over the sample space itself, are considered events. However, this has essentially only theoretical significance, since in general the σ-algebra can always be defined to include all subsets of interest in applications.



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From Yahoo Answers

Question:Which is used? z-test, 1-sample t-test, dependent samples t-test, independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance? 1. Taking experimental drugs or placebo 2. Student score 690, standard deviation 95, want to score in top 10%. 3. Putting plants in high sunlight and in moderate sunlight 4. Comparing exam scores to final scores. 5. collecting data from 5 elephants. 6. collecting mean from school exams.

Answers:1) Indep sample t-test 2) Assuming normality, z-test 3) independent t-test (if 2 indep samples are used) 4) dependent t-test (same students) 5) ANOVA (more than 2 samples) 6) ANOVA (exam 1,2,3 ....)

Question:I would like to know what an independent variable is. And what a dependent variable. Please help.

Answers:Independent variables answer the question "What do I change Dependent variables answer the question "What do I observe Controlled variables answer the question "What do I keep the same

Question:A= [-6 -5 9] B= [3 3 -3] C=[30 27 -39] Determine whether or not the three vectors listed above are linearly independent or linearly dependent. If they are linearly dependent, determine a non-trivial linear relation - (a non-trivial relation is three numbers which are not all three zero.) otherwise, if the vectors are linearly independent, enter 0's for the coefficients.

Answers:These are vectors not matrices. I will outline the solution process. To tell if they are linear independent you use the definition. Three vectors v1, v2, v3 are linearly independent if the only solution to a*v1+ b*v2+ c*v3 = 0 is the zero solution i.e.. a = 0 b = 0 c = 0. So we set up 3 equations in 3 unknowns and see what happens. a*A +b*B + c*C = [0,0,0] , the zero vector. This translates to: -6a +3b +30c = 0 ..eq 1 -5a + 3b +27c = 0 .. eq 2 9a - 3b -39c = 0 .. eq3 If you add equation eq3 to eq1 and eq 2, you will eliminate the b term. Then you have 2 equations in 2 unknowns which are easy to solve. As a further hint, this problem has multiple solutions.

Question:i have a test tomorrow and have been asked to find out the meanings of certain words- cannot find a definition sutiable for random sample. does anyone have one?

Answers:random sample - picking names out of a phone book or from a list without taking into account any demographics, age, preference, etc. to use in a survey of potential customers. (The old "close your eyes, let your finger hit the page, and copy down the name")

From Youtube

Dependent Sample t- Test in Excel :How to conduct a t-test of means for two dependent samples using Excel.

Tax Tips & Advice : How to Meet the IRS Definition of a Dependent :There are five tests that someone needs to pass in order to be claimed as a dependent on any tax return and being a household member is one of them. Understand the literal definition of dependent and who is and who is not one with advice from anexperienced tax professional in this free video on taxes. Expert: Danielle Loughran Contact: www.accell-us.com Bio: Danielle Loughran is a CPA with over nine years of public and private accounting experience at Arthur Anderson and Ernst & Young and is currently the director of assurance at Accell. Filmmaker: Christopher Rokosz