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From Wikipedia

Structural formula

The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged. The chemical bonding within the molecule is also shown, either explicitly or implicitly. There are several common representations used in publications. These are described below. Also several other formats are used, as in chemical databases, such as SMILES, InChI and CML.

Unlike chemical formulas or chemical names, structural formulas provide a representation of the molecular structure. Chemists nearly always describe a chemical reaction or synthesis using structural formulas rather than chemical names, because the structural formulas allow the chemist to visualize the molecules and the changes that occur.

Many chemical compounds exist in different isomeric forms, which have different structures but the same overall chemical formula. A structural formula indicates the arrangements of atoms in a way that a chemical formula cannot.

Lewis structures

Lewis structures (or "Lewis dot structures") are flat graphical formulas that show atom connectivity and lone pair or unpaired electrons, but not three-dimensional structure. This notation is mostly used for small molecules. Each line represents the two electrons of a single bond. Two or three parallel lines between pairs of atoms represent double or triple bonds, respectively. Alternatively, pairs of dots may used to represent bonding pairs. In addition, all non-bonded electrons (paired or unpaired) and any formal charges on atoms are indicated.

Condensed formulas

In early organic-chemistry publications, where use of graphics was severely limited, a typographic system arose to describe organic structures in a line of text. Although this system tends to be problematic in application to cyclic compounds, it remains a convenient way to represent simple structures:

CH3CH2OH (ethanol)

Parentheses are used to indicate multiple identical groups, indicating attachment to the nearest non-hydrogen atom on the left when appearing within a formula, or to the atom on the right when appearing at the start of a formula:

(CH3)2CHOH or CH(CH3)2OH (2-propanol)

In all cases, all atoms are shown, including hydrogen atoms.

Skeletal formulas

Skeletal formulas are the standard notation for more complex organic molecules. First used by the organic chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz the carbon atoms in this type of diagram are implied to be located at the vertices (corners) and termini of line segments rather than being indicated with the atomic symbol C. Hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms are not indicated: each carbon atom is understood to be associated with enough hydrogen atoms to give the carbon atom four bonds. The presence of a positive or negative charge at a carbon atom takes the place of one of the implied hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms attached to atoms other than carbon must be written explicitly.

Indication of stereochemistry

Several methods exist to picture the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule (stereochemistry).

Stereochemistry in skeletal formulas

Chirality in skeletal formulas is indicated by the Natta projection method. Solid or dashed wedged bonds represent bonds pointing above-the-plane or below-the-plane of the paper, respectively.

Unspecified stereochemistry

Wavy single bonds represent unknown or unspecified stereochemistry or a mixture of isomers. For example the diagram below shows the fructose molecule with a wavy bond to the HOCH2- group at the left. In this case the two possible ring structures are in chemical equilibrium with each other and also with the open-chain structure. The ring continually opens and closes, sometimes closing with one stereochemistry and sometimes with the other.

Perspective drawings

Newman projection and sawhorse projection

The Newman projection and the sawhorse projection are used to depict specific conformers or to distinguish vicinal stereochemistry. In both cases, two specific carbon atoms and their connecting bond are the center of attention. The only difference is a slightly different perspective: the Newman projection looking straight down the bond of interest, the sawhorse projection looking at the same bond but from a somewhat oblique vantage point. In the Newman projection, a circle is used to represent a plane perpendicular to the bond, distinguishing the substituents on the front carbon from the substituents on the back carbon. In the sawhorse projection, the front carbon is usually on the left and is always slightly lower:

Cyclohexane conformations

Certain conformations of cyclohexane and other small-ring compounds can be shown using a standard convention. For example, the standard chair conformation of cyclohexane involves a perspective view from slightly above the average plane of the carbon atoms and indicates clearly which groups are axial and which are


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Can a dipeptide be broken down into two amino acids via dehydration synthesis?

Answers:Dehydration synthesis is synthesis, as in, it is putting 2 parts together. A dipeptide can be broken down with a hydration reaction.

Question:Dehydration Synthesis is the process in which two amino acids are joined by removing a hydrogen molecule from one, and an oxygen-hydrogen molecule from another, allowing the two amino acids to bond. That H2O molecule (Hydrogen+Oxygen+Hydrogen) is removed from the acids- where does it go? Because millions of Dehydration Syntheses take place, I would assume its important.

Answers:It goes into the local environment, just as if you had had a drink of water. It's referred to as "metabolic water" because it's formed as a result of metabolism.

Question:1-methylcyclopentanol -> 2-chloro-1-methylcyclopentanol. Why can't I use E2 elimination with KOH to remove a Chlorine atom, then form a halohydrin (Cl2/H20)? The book says that instead of KOH, I should first use H2SO4 to dehydrate this alcohol and then form the halohydrin. Could my method work also and what is the best way to approach these sorts of problems?

Answers:1-methylcyclopentanol has no chlorine atoms, so what are you dehydrohalogenating?

Question:I am studying the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria for respiration. I know that this is triggered by the movement of H- ions from outside the plasma membrane into the organelle. I have two questions: 1. Do the hydrogen ions cross the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion? 2. How does the energy released by the movement of the hydrogen ions manifest itself in the synthesis of ATP as these ions do not appear in the chemical formula for ATP synthesis and seem unrelated. Do the hydrogen ions provide the activation energy for the ATP synthesis reaction under ATP synthase? If so, how? Do they bind to the ATP synthase molecule as well? Any help would be much appreciated.

Answers:The H+ (protons not -) are pumped into the space between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondria as a result of electron transport by the electron transport chain (ETC) on the inner membrane. No need to worry about the plasma membrane - this surrounds the whole cell! Thus a high concentration of H+ builds up in the space between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondria and they diffuse back into the matrix of the mitochondria through the ATP synthase in the inner membrane. In doing so this energy of H+ movement drives the synthesis of ATP and the H+ can be pumped back across the inner membrane by the ETC and the cycle continues.

From Youtube

2PP-DehydrationSynthesis :This shows how two monomers (such as amino acids) can chemically combine to make a larger molecule, also known as a polymer.

Honest Kitchen Dehydrated Dog Food - Preparation :This video shows how easy it is to prepare Honest Kitchen all-natural dog food. It also explains the differences in formulas