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From Wikipedia

Technology integration

Technology Integration is the use of technology tools in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to learning and problem-solving. Generally speaking, the curriculum drives the use of technology and not vice versa.

The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has established technology standards for students, teachers and administrators in K-12 classrooms. The ISTE, a leader in helping teachers become more effective users of technology, offers this definition of technology integration:

"Curriculum integration with the use of technology involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting... Effective integration of technology is achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information, and present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions — as accessible as all other classroom tools. The focus in each lesson or unit is the curriculum outcome, not the technology."

Technology Education Standards

National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) served as a roadmap since 1998 for improved teaching and learning by educators. As stated above, these standards are used by teachers, students, and administrators to measure competency and set higher goals to be skillful in the technology in the 21st century.



Most research in technology integration has been criticized for being atheoretical and ad hoc, driven more by the affordances of the technology rather than the demands of pedagogy and subject matter. One approach that attempts to address this concern is a framework aimed at describing the nature of teacher knowledge for successful technology integration. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge or TPACK framework has recently received some positive attention.

Constructivism in Technology Integration

Constructivism is a crucial component of technology integration. It is a learning theory that describes the process of students constructing their own knowledge through collaboration and inquiry-based learning. According to this theory, students learn more deeply and retain information longer when they have a say in what and how they will learn. Inquiry-based learning, thus, is researching a question that is personally relevant and purposeful because of its direct correlation to the one investigating the knowledge. As stated by Jean Piaget, constructivist learning is based on four stages of cognitive development. In these stages, children must take an active role in their own learning and produce meaningful works in order to develop a clear understanding. These works are a reflection of the knowledge that has been achieved through active self-guided learning. Students are active leaders in their learning and the learning is student-led rather than teacher–directed.

Many teachers use a constructivist approach in their classrooms assuming one or more of the following roles: facilitator, collaborator, curriculum developer, team member, community builder, educational leader, or information producer.


Various tools have or are being used in technology integration. Some examples of such tools are:

Interactive whiteboards

Interactive whiteboards are used in many schools as replacements for standard whiteboards and provide a way to allow students to interact with material on the computer. In addition, some interactive whiteboards software allow teachers to record their instruction and post the material for review by students at a later time.

  • 3Dvirtual environments are also used with interactive whiteboards as a way for students to interact with 3D virtual learning objects employing kinetics and haptic touch the classroom. An example of the use of this technique is the open-source project Edusim.
  • Research has been carried out to track the worldwide Interactive Whiteboard market by Decision Tree Consulting (DTC), a worldwide research company. According to the results, interactive Whiteboards continue to be the biggest technology revolution in classrooms, across the world there are over 1.2 million boards installed, over 5 million classrooms are forecast to have Interactive Whiteboards installed by 2011, Americas are the biggest region closely followed by EMEA, and Mexico’s Enciclomedia project to equip 145,000 classrooms is worth $1.8 billion and is the largest education technology project in the world.
  • Interactive whiteboards can accommodate different learning styles, such as visual, tactile, and audio.

Student Response Systems

Student response systems consist of handheld remote control units, or response pads, which are operated by individual students. An infrared or radio frequency receiver attached to the teacher's computer collects the data submitted by students. The CPS (Classroom Performance System), once set, allows the teacher to pose a question to students in several formats. Students then use the response pad to send their answer to the infrared sensor. Data collected from these systems is available to the teacher in real time and can be presented to the students in a graph form on an LCD projector. The teacher can also access a variety of reports to collect and analyze student data. These systems have been used in higher education science courses since the 1970s and have become popular in K-12 classrooms beginning in the early 21st century.

Among other tools that have been noted as being effective as a way of technology integration are From Yahoo Answers

Question:There's a graph of a function f(x) that looks similar to the graph of sine. The area above the x axis is 13 and the area below is 2. The starting point is a and the ending point c. So the definite integral of f(x)dx between c and a is 11, right? Because 13-2 = 11. What is the definite integral of the absolute value of f(x) dx between c and a? Thanks :D

Answers:Yes. The definite integral is the area of the upper-bound region minus the area of the lower-bound region. For the absolute value it's the total area of the figure, which is 13+2=15.

Question:i would like easy to understand definitions please and maybe even an example. (example would be better ^^)

Answers:Functional regions are political in nature, examples would be like states, counties, school districts, etc. Vernacular regions are things that are defined in terms of a persons perception of place. An example would be the vernacular regions in the United States: The South, The Southwest, New England, The Midwest... sometimes Vernacular regions are called Perceptual regions

Question:Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs of the algebraic functions. f(x) = x^2 + x 18, g(x) = 4x - 8

Answers:They intersect at x = -2 and x = 5, so do the definite integral of the difference between the two functions from -2 and 5 to get 343 / 6.

Question:What are the Advantages and disadvantage to countries of regional economic integrations?

Answers:The advantage is a trade creation. It means an increase production of the goods in the lowest cost member countries. The disadvantage is the trade diversion. It means that the tax wall will reduce the imports from third countries which have more lower costs.

From Youtube

The Definite Integral - Understanding the Definition :The Definite Integral - Understanding the Definition. In this video, I discuss the definition only; I do not calculate any definite integrals.

Definite Integrals (part 4) :Examples of using definite integrals to find the area under a curve