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Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition.)
Agriculture and agricultural science
The two terms are often confused. However, they cover different concepts:
- Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application of agronomic research.
- Agronomy is research and development related to studying and improving plant-based agriculture.
Agricultural sciences include research and development on:
- Production techniques (e.g., irrigation management, recommended nitrogen inputs)
- Improving agricultural productivity in terms of quantity and quality (e.g., selection of drought-resistant crops and animals, development of new pesticides, yield-sensing technologies, simulation models of crop growth, in-vitro cell culture techniques)
- Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products (e.g., production, preservation, and packaging of dairy products)
- Prevention and correction of adverse
Agricultural science: a local science
With the exception of theoretical agronomy, research in agronomy, more than in any other field, is strongly related to local areas. It can be considered a science of ecoregions, because it is closely linked to soil properties and climate, which are never exactly the same from one place to another. Many people think an agricultural production system relying on local weather, soil characteristics, and specific crops has to be studied locally. Others feel a need to know and understand production systems in as many areas as possible, and the human dimension of interaction with nature.
History of agricultural science
Agricultural science began with Gregor Mendel's genetic work, but in modern terms might be better dated from the chemical fertilizer outputs of plant physiological understanding in eighteenth century Germany. In the United States, a scientific revolution in agriculture began with the Hatch Act of 1887, which used the term "agricultural science". The Hatch Act was driven by farmers' interest in knowing the constituents of early artificial fertilizer. The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 shifted agricultural education back to its vocational roots, but the scientific foundation had been built. After 1906, public expenditures on agricultural research in the US exceeded private expenditures for the next 44 years.
Intensification of agriculture since the 1960s in developed and developing countries, often referred to as the Green Revolution, was closely tied to progress made in selecting and improving crops and animals for high productivity, as well as to developing additional inputs such as artificial fertilizers and phytosanitary products.
As the oldest and largest human intervention in nature, the environmental impact of agriculture in general and more recently intensive agriculture, industrial development, and population growth have raised many questions among agricultural scientists and have led to the development and emergence of new fields. These include technological fields that assume the solution to technological problems lies in better technology, such as integrated pest management, waste treatment technologies, landscape architecture, genomics, and agricultural philosophy fields that include references to food production as something essentially different from non-essential economic 'goods'. In fact, the interaction between these two approaches provide a fertile field for deeper understanding in agricultural science.
New technologies, such as biotechnology and computer science (for data processing and storage), and technological advances have made it possible to develop new research fields, including genetic engineering, agrophysics, improved statistical analysis, and precision farming. Balancing these, as above, are the natural and human sciences of agricultural science that seek to understand the human-nature interactions of traditional agriculture, including interaction of religion and agriculture, and the non-material components of agricultural production systems.
Prominent agricultural scientists
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science [Lat. scientia =knowledge]. For many the term science refers to the organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both animate and inanimate, but a proper definition would also have to include the attitudes and methods through which this body of knowledge is formed; thus, a science is both a particular kind of activity and also the results of that activity. The Scientific Method The scientific method has evolved over many centuries and has now come to be described in terms of a well-recognized and well-defined series of steps. First, information, or data, is gathered by careful observation of the phenomenon being studied. On the basis of that information a preliminary generalization, or hypothesis, is formed, usually by inductive reasoning, and this in turn leads by deductive logic to a number of implications that may be tested by further observations and experiments (see induction ; deduction ). If the conclusions drawn from the original hypothesis successfully meet all these tests, the hypothesis becomes accepted as a scientific theory or law; if additional facts are in disagreement with the hypothesis, it may be modified or discarded in favor of a new hypothesis, which is then subjected to further tests. Even an accepted theory may eventually be overthrown if enough contradictory evidence is found, as in the case of Newtonian mechanics, which was shown after more than two centuries of acceptance to be an approximation valid only for speeds much less than that of light. Role of Measurement and Experiment All of the activities of the scientific method are characterized by a scientific attitude, which stresses rational impartiality. Measurement plays an important role, and when possible the scientist attempts to test his theories by carefully designed and controlled experiments that will yield quantitative rather than qualitative results. Theory and experiment work together in science, with experiments leading to new theories that in turn suggest further experiments. Although these methods and attitudes are generally shared by scientists, they do not provide a guaranteed means of scientific discovery; other factors, such as intuition, experience, good judgment, and sometimes luck, also contribute to new developments in science. Branches of Specialization Science may be roughly divided into the physical sciences, the earth sciences, and the life sciences. Mathematics , while not a science, is closely allied to the sciences because of their extensive use of it. Indeed, it is frequently referred to as the language of science, the most important and objective means for communicating the results of science. The physical sciences include physics , chemistry , and astronomy ; the earth sciences (sometimes considered a part of the physical sciences) include geology , paleontology , oceanography , and meteorology ; and the life sciences include all the branches of biology such as botany , zoology , genetics , and medicine . Each of these subjects is itself divided into different branchesâ€”e.g., mathematics into arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and analysis; physics into mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, electricity and magnetism, and atomic and nuclear physics. In addition to these separate branches, there are numerous fields that draw on more than one branch of science, e.g., astrophysics, biophysics, biochemistry, geochemistry, and geophysics. All of these areas of study might be called pure sciences, in contrast to the applied, or engineering, sciences, i.e., technology, which is concerned with the practical application of the results of scientific activity. Such fields include mechanical, civil, aeronautical, electrical, architectural, chemical, and other kinds of engineering ; agronomy, horticulture, and animal husbandry; and many aspects of medicine. Finally, there are distinct disciplines for the study of the history and philosophy of science. The Beginnings of Science Science as it is known today is of relatively modern origin, but the traditions out of which it has emerged reach back beyond recorded history. The roots of science lie in the technology of early toolmaking and other crafts, while scientific theory was once a part of philosophy and religion. This relationship, with technology encouraging science rather than the other way around, remained the norm until recent times. Thus, the history of science is essentially intertwined with that of technology. Practical Applications in the Ancient Middle East The early civilizations of the Tigris-Euphrates valley and the Nile valley made advances in both technology and theory, but separate groups within each culture were responsible for the progress. Practical advances in metallurgy, agriculture, transportation, and navigation were made by the artisan class, such as the wheelwrights and shipbuilders. The priests and scribes were responsible for record keeping, land division, and calendar determination, and they developed written language and early mathematics for this purpose. The Babylonians devised methods for solving algebraic equations, and they compiled extensive astronomical records from which the periods of the planets' revolution and the eclipse cycle could be calculated; they used a year of 12 months and a week of 7 days, and also originated the division of the day into hours, minutes, and seconds. In Egypt there were also developments in mathematics and astronomy and the beginnings of the science of medicine. Wheeled vehicles and bronze metallurgy, both known to the Sumerians in Babylonia as early as 3000 BC, were imported to Egypt c.1750 BC Between 1400 BC and 1100 BC iron smelting was discovered in Armenia and spread from there, and alphabets were developed in Phoenicia. Early Greek Contributions to Science The early Greek, or Hellenic, culture marked a different approach to science. The Ionian natural philosophers removed the gods from the personal roles they had played in the cosmologies of Babylonia and Egypt and sought to order the world according to philosophical principles. Thales of Miletus (6th cent. BC) was one of the earliest of these and contributed to astronomy, geometry, and cosmology. He was followed by Anaximander, who extended Thales' ideas and proposed that the universe is composed of four basic elements, i.e., earth, air, fire, and water; this theory was also taught by Empedocles (5th cent. BC) in Sicily. The philosophers Leucippus and Democritus (both 5th cent. BC) held that everything is composed of tiny, indivisible atoms. In the school founded at Croton, S Italy, by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras of Samos (6th cent. BC) the principal concept was that of number. The Pythagoreans tried to explain the workings of the universe in terms of whole numbers and their ratios; in addition to contributions to mathematics and philosophy, they also made notable studies in the area of biology and anatomy, e.g., by Alcmaeon of Croton (fl. c.500 BC). The most important developments in medicine were made by Hippocrates of Cos (4th cent. BC), known as the Father of Medicine, who formulated the science of diagnosis based on accurate descriptions of the symptoms of various diseases. The greatest figures of the earlier Greek period were the philosophers Plato (427-347 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC), each of whom exerted an influence that has extended down to modern times. Influence of the Alexandrian Schools The later Greek, or Hellenistic, culture was centered not in Greece itself but in Greek cities elsewhere, particularly Alexandria, Egypt, which was founded in 332 BC by Alexander the Great. The so-called first Alexandrian school included Euclid (fl. c.300 BC), who organized the axiomatic system of geometry that has served as the model for many other scientific presentations since then; Eratosthenes (3d cent. BC), who made a remarkably accurate estimate of the size of the earth; and Aristarchus (3d cent. BC), who showed that the sun is larger than the earth and suggested a heliocentric model for the solar system. Archimedes (287-212 BC) worked at Syracuse, Sicily, and made contributions to mathematics and mechanics that were surprisingly mo
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Answers:The planting of tree crops== Silviculture OR Plantation 1 )Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of the many landowners, societies and cultures over the parts the globe that are covered by dry land. 2 )Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or TREES and the like are cultivated, usually by resident laborers. The planting of agricultural crops = Agriculture Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture encompasses many subjects, including aquaculture, agronomy, animal husbandry, and horticulture. Each of these subjects can be further partitioned: for example, agronomy includes both sustainable agriculture and intensive farming, and animal husbandry includes ranching, herding, and intensive pig farming. Agricultural products include food (vegetables, fruits, and cereals), fibers (cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax), fuels (methane from biomass, ethanol, biodiesel), cut flowers, ornamental and nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade, both legal and illegal drugs (biopharmaceuticals, tobacco, marijuana, opium, cocaine), and other useful materials such as resins. From = A BotanistQuestion:I study Crop Science, which is part-way between degrees in Agriculture and those in Plant Science. It differs from Agriculture in that I don't attend classes in Business Management, or animal production. It differs from Plant Science in that I specialise in plants of economic significance and I learn about cultivation systems. I also take German classes and have ased several people what is the best way to describe my degree in German, but I get different answers all the time. What do you guys think? P.S. No Babelfish or other automatic translation sites! see, nobody can agree!
Answers:You may find the link below interesting - it is the Bayer Crop Science German language website. Bayer is a German company, this is their Crop Science page - and they call it "Crop Science". The University in Kassel Germany has a department of Ecological Agrarian Sciences - Oekologische Agrarwissenschaften. The University in Goettingen Germany has a department called "Crop Science" on its English language website - and called "Pflanzenbau" on its German language website. Adding wissenschaft at the end as suggested by Redneck Girl would be correct too - wissenschaft means, sorta, Science. So Pflanzenbau - gets to the point of crop engineering/farming - and wissenschaft adds the concept of being a field of science - so Pflanzenbauwissenschaft would be OK. Obviously, though, there are many ways to say basically the same kind of thing - Crop Science, Agriculture, Agriscience, or whatever else a university chooses to name their department. But Pflanzenbau is used by at least one university that refers to the same department as Crop Science in English - so that would be a good choice.Question:What are the definitions of: Biotic Limiting Factors, Abiotic Limiting Factors, Pollution (point sources), and Pollution (non-point sources)? Please try to make them short. Thanks
Answers:Biotic factors: things that come from living things. An example is grass for cows. Abiotic factors: things that come from non-living things. An example is light for grass. Point sources: pollution that comes from a single location, such as factory air pollution. Non-point sources: pollution that comes from many areas, such as contaminated stormwater runnoff.Question:I'm looking for a book that tells me everything I need to know about crop rotation; the history of crop rotation, comparisons of various forms regarding yields, what other technologies were needed for a particular form, the works. Trying to look up a reference myself only got me political tracts disguised as books.
Answers:Ecological Applications, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb., 1993), pp. 92-122 Crop Rotation and Intercropping Strategies for Weed Management Matt Liebman, Elizabeth Dyck http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/who-we-are/people-and-offices/directory/matthew-liebman.html Liebman's a Prof in Agronomy at Iowa State http://www.agron.iastate.edu/personnel/userspage.aspx?id=646 Heck - you need no more from me, just read HIS suggestions Publications: Planting date effects on winter triticale grain yield and yield components Author(s): Schwarte, A.J., L.R. Gibson, D.L. Karlen, P.M. Dixon, M. Liebman, and J.-L. Jannink Crop Sci, 46: 1218-1224, 2006 Seed mass affects the susceptibility of weed and crop species to phytotoxins extracted from red clover shoots Author(s): Liebman, M. and D.N. Sundberg Weed Science, 54: 340-345, 2006 Demography of Abutilon theophrasti and Setaria faberi in three crop rotation systems Author(s): Heggenstaller, A.H. and M. Liebman Weed Research, 46: 138-151, 2006 Integrating measurements of seed availability and removal to estimate weed seed losses due to predation Author(s): Westerman, P.R., M. Liebman, A.H. Heggenstaller, and F. Forcella Weed Science, 54: 566-574, 2006 Agroecosystem restoration through strategic integration of perennials Author(s): Schulte, L.A., M. Liebman, H. Asbjornsen, and T.R. Crow Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 61(6): 164-169, 2006 Determination of compost respiration rates using pressure sensors Author(s): Sadaka, S.S., T.L. Richard, T.D. Loecke, and M. Liebman Compost Science and Utilization, 14: 124-131, 2006 Integrating principles of nitrogen dynamics in a method to estimate leachable nitrogen under agricultural systems Author(s): Burkart, M., D. James, M. Liebman, and E. van Ouwerkerk Water Science and Technology, 53(2): 289-301, 2006 Residual effects of composted and fresh solid swine manure on soybean growth and yield Author(s): McAndrews, G.M., M. Liebman, C.A. Cambardella, and T.L. Richard Agronomy Journal, 98: 873-882, 2006 Seasonal patterns in post-dispersal seed predation of Abutilon theophrasti and Setaria faberi in three cropping systems Author(s): Heggenstaller, A.H., F.D. Menalled, M. Liebman, and P.R. Westerman Journal of Applied Ecology, 43: 999-1010, 2006 Post-dispersal weed seed predation by invertebrates in conventional and low-external-input crop rotation systems Author(s): O Rourke, M.E., A. Heggenstaller, M. Liebman, M.E. Rice Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 116: 280-288, 2006 Organic soil amendment effects on weed seedbank dynamics Author(s): Menalled, F.D., K.A. Kohler, D.D. Buhler, and M. Liebman Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 111: 63-69, 2005 Impacts of integrated crop-livestock systems on nitrogen dynamics and soil erosion in western Iowa watersheds Author(s): Burkart, M., D. James, M. Liebman, and C. Herndl J. Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (on-line), 110, G01009, doi:10.1029/2004JG000008, 2005 Are many little hammers effective? Velvetleaf population dynamics in two- and four-year crop rotation systems Author(s): Westerman, P.R., M. Liebman, F.D. Menalled, A.H. Heggenstaller, R.G. Hartzler, and P.M. Dixon Weed Science, 53:382-392, 2005 Planting date effects on winter triticale dry matter and nitrogen accumulation Author(s): Schwarte, A.J., L.R. Gibson, D.L. Karlen, M. Liebman, and J-.L. Jannink Agron. J, 97:1333-1341, 2005 Chemical characterization of soil phosphorus and organic matter in different cropping systems in Maine, U.S.A Author(s): Ohno, T., T.S. Griffin, M. Liebman, and G.A. Porter Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 105: 625-634, 2005 Germination and early growth responses of crop and weed species to composted swine manure under greenhouse conditions Author(s): Menalled, F.D., D.D. Buhler, and M. Liebman Weed Technology, 19: 784-789, 2005 Using matrix models to determine cropping system effects on the demography of an annual weed Author(s): Davis, A.S., P.M. Dixon, and M. Liebman Ecological Applications, 14:655-668, 2004 Timing of application and composting affect corn (Zea mays L.) yield response to solid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure Author(s): Loecke, T.D., M. Liebman, C.A. Cambardella, and T.L. Richard Agronomy Journal, 96: 214-223, 2004 Corn growth responses to composted and fresh solid swine manures Author(s): Loecke, T.D. , M. Liebman, C.A. Cambardella, and T.L. Richard Crop Science, 44: 177-184, 2004 The effect of natural mulches on crop performance, weed suppression and biochemical constituents of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) Author(s): Duppong, LM, K Delate, M Liebman, R. Horton, F Romero, G Kraus, J Petrich and PK Chowdhury Crop Science, 44: 861-869, 2004 A laboratory exercise for teaching depth of weed emergence concepts Author(s): Gibson, L.R., M. Liebman Weed Technology, 18:473-479, 2004 Impacts of composted swine manure on weed and corn nutrient uptake, growth, and seed production Author(s): Liebman, M, FD Menalled, DD B
From YoutubeCrop Rotation :The science behind crop rotation made simple. Follow the story of Billy Bob Catoe and Jimmy John Fizgerald as they discover the importance of crop rotation. Made by William Pettibone and Mason Lee Branham.Crop and Soil Sciences - Turfgrass Management :Crop and Soil Sciences: feed the world, save the planet. What can you do with a degree in crop and soil science from Washington State University? Think outside the barn and you discover the career possibilities are expansive. Learn more by watching this short video.