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Informal sector

The informal sector or informal economy is the part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy. Examples are barter and gift economy. KAYLIE TOOK A BOOM BOOM :)

Although the informal economy is often associated with developing countries, where up to 60% of the labour force (with as much 40% of GDP) works, all economic systems contain an informal economy in some proportion. The term informal sector was used in many earlier studies, and has been mostly replaced in more recent studies which use the newer term.

The English idioms under the table and off the books typically refer to this type of economy. The term black marketrefers to a specific subset of the informal economy in whichcontraband is traded; where contraband may be strictly or informally defined.

Definition

Informal economic activity is a dynamic process which includes many aspects of economic and social theory including exchange, regulation, and enforcement. By its nature, it is necessarily difficult to observe, study, define, and measure. No single source readily or authoritatively defines informal economy as a unit of study, although the work of economic anthropologist Keith Hart was integral in defining the term.

To further confound attempts to define this process, informal economic activity is temporal in nature. Regulations (and degrees of enforcement) change frequently, sometimes daily, and any instance of economic activity can shift between categories of formal and informal with even minor changes in policy.

Given the complexity of the phenomenon, the simplest definition of informal economic activity might be: any exchange of goods or services involving economic value in which the act escapes regulation of similar satchel acts.

History

Governments have tried to regulate (formalize) aspects of their economies for as long as surplus wealth has existed which is at least as early as Sumer. Yet no such regulation has ever been wholly enforceable. Archaeological and anthropological evidence strongly suggests that people of all societies regularly adjust their activity within economic systems in attempt to evade regulations. Therefore, if informal economic activity is that which goes unregulated in an otherwise regulated system then informal economies are as old as their formal counterparts. The term itself, however, is much more recent. The optimism of the modernization theory school of development had led most people in the 1950s and 1960s to believe that traditional forms of work and production would disappear as a result of economic progress in developing countries. As this optimism proved to be unfounded, scholars turned to study more closely what was then called the traditional sector. They found that the sector had not only persisted, but in fact expanded to encompass new developments. In accepting that these forms of productions were there to stay, scholars started using the term informal sector, which is credited to the British anthropologist Keith Hart in a study on Ghana in 1973 but also alluded to by the International Labour Organization in a widely read study on Kenya in 1972 MANAN ROHAN.

Since then the informal sector has become an increasingly popular subject of investigation, not just in economics, but also in sociology and anthropology. With the turn towards so called post-fordist modes of production in the advanced developing countries, many workers were forced out of their formal sector work and into informal employment. In a seminal collection of articles, The Informal Economy. Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries, Alejandro Portes and collaborators emphasized the existence of an informal economy in all countries by including case studies ranging from New York City and Madrid to Uruguay and Colombia.

Arguably the most influential book on informal economy is Hernando de Soto's El otro sendero (1986), which was published in English in 1989 as The Other Path with a preface by Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa. De Soto and his team argue that excessive regulation in the Peruvian (and other Latin American) economies force a large part of the economy into informality and thus prevent economic development. While accusing the ruling class of 20th century mercantilism, de Soto admires the entrepreneurial spirit of the informal economy. In a widely cited experiment, his team tried to legally register a small garment factory in Lima. This took more than 100 administrative steps and almost a year of full-time work. Whereas de Soto's work is popular with policymakers and champions of free market policies like The Economist, many scholars of the informal economy have criticized it both for methodological flaws and normative bias.

In the second half of the 1990s many scholars have started to consciously use the term "informal economy" instead of "informal sector" to refer to a broader concept that includes enterprises as well as employment in developing, transition, and advanced industrialized economies.

Some facts

The informal economy under any governing system is diverse and includes small-scaled, occasional members (often street vendors and garbage recyclers) as well as larger, regular enterprises (including transit systems such as that of Lima, Peru). Informal economies include garment workers working from their homes, as well as informally employed personnel of formal enterprises. Employees working in the informal sector can be classified as wage workers, non-wage workers, or a combination of both.

The above definition rejects the inclusion of certain activities including crime and domestic labor. <


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From Yahoo Answers

Question:Hey i need help with a spanish question. Well actually two. 1. definite article. _______ ara a? 2. definite article.________ se oras? thanks!

Answers:1. (La) ara a 2. (Las) se oras Definite articles in Spanish are el, la, los, las. They are basically the equivalent of 'the' in English. To determine which should be used, look at the ending of the words. 'Ara a' ends in -a, so it is singular and feminine, therefore requiring la. 'Se oras' ends in -as, making it plural and feminine, so las needs to be used.

Question:I never know when to use or omit the definite articles (la/el) in spanish - is there an easy rule? For example 'el futbol es mas popular que el rugby' - why cant i just say 'futbol es mas popular que rugby'?

Answers:bcos its not 'grammatically' correct! all predominately Latin derived languages use the definite article always,,,,,,,,,but not using will still be understood, and not usually thought of as an error

Question:I'm am not sure what rule governs the use of the definite article in relation to groups. Take these two statements: The unemployed must be encouraged to find work. Politicians are rather more self seeking than they ought to be! In the first sentence 'unemployed' needed the article, but in the second 'politicians' did not. In both sentences we are talking about a group of people as a whole. So what rule governs the usage of the definite article?

Answers:I think "The unemployed" is a shortened form of "The people who are unemployed" and refers to a specific group of people. Another example of specific/general is to compare "Music is wonderful" and "The music of Bach is wonderful." The first one is general, and the second one is specific. "Politicians," in your example, is used generally, where "The politicians belonging to the Whig party" or "The politicians wearing bowties" or "The politicians who have spent all of the money on programs that won't work" would be specific.

Question:Reasons Why Abortion Is Amiss Abortion is the termination or killing of an embryo, the killing of a life. Many don t consider this to be wrong and say it s the choice of the mother to keep her baby or to get rid of it. Many have abortions because they aren t ready for a baby or have other affairs that they consider more important but doesn t everyone deserve a chance to live, no matter how small? Most don t know the dangers of abortion or how it even works, but many go to this option when faced with this decision. There are many issues that could be discussed when conversing about abortion such as the dangers of abortion, reasons why women may get abortions and the controversial question is it murder? Ones who aren t sure which side they are on when it comes to abortion will know at the conclusion of this essay. Is it murder? Well the definition of abortion states that it is the killing of an embryo. When an embryo is in the woman s stomach, it is alive so therefore if you have an abortion you are in fact taking a life. In a little more than three weeks after conception, the embryo or baby has already developed a heart and it begins to beat using the child s own blood type. It has a heart. The heart is beating and life-giving blood runs through the embryo to continue the development process inside the womb. In five weeks the baby has already developed eyes, legs, and hands and there s even more progresses by the six week. The baby s brain waves are detectable, they have already developed the mouth, and lips and their small fingernails start to form. With all this information on what the baby has already developed by the six week we have no doubt that terminating a pregnancy is the murdering of an unborn child. Many say that it doesn t really matter because the unborn baby doesn t have feelings and doesn t know what s happening, but whoever aborts a baby is actually letting one less person experience the precious invaluable gift of life. Is it the embryo s fault that it was created? You know what s ironic? Many fight and we fight and fight to save trees and rainforest and even stick up for animal s rights but how many will not help at all or even get into a conversation about abortion. Many are standing up for everything but an unborn human s life. There were a few statistics on abortion that I found certified by the (AGI) and (CDC). One stated that out of every 10 pregnancies 4 are terminated by some type of abortion treatment (AGI). Another says that 50% of all U.S women under the age of 25 have had an abortion (AGI) and that girls under the age of 15 have the highest ratio because for every 1,000 births they have, they have 773 abortions (CDC). Most abortions happen during the 13th week (AGI/ CDC). By the 13 week the baby has a heart beat, a blood type, eyes, legs, hands, mouth, lips, fingernails, eyelids, toes, nose, teeth, has a skeletal structure with all their organs functioning, experiences pain, can move around in the womb, even has fingerprints, and can grasp objects with its hands. This is all the things a baby can do before the end of one trimester. This is evidence that proves that unborn children are alive in the womb and should be saved. Why are so many embryos lives resulting to abortions? Many consider and have abortions because of either they work and go to school, or they don t have the money to take care of a child. Some are also single and don t want to raise a baby alone or are having problems with their mate or partner. Most are killing an unborn life because of selfish reasons, but there are solutions without killing your unborn child. If you are in school you can work harder to graduate early or continue your classes online after a child is born. If you have a job you can save up money to make sure that when you go back to work you can have a babysitter to watch your child when you are working. Lastly, if you are not financially able to raise a child or are single and just choose not to then you can look into adoption for the child so they would have a nice home instead of not giving the unborn child a chance to live. These would all be an acceptable way to let your child live. Life is a gift, a precious one that today isn t deemed valuable. It s interesting that a television commercial to save the lives of animals requests a small donation of $0.60 cents and immediately after another commercial requesting donations to save the lives of children was $0.50 cents. Human life isn t highly valued. There are two great things to remember in making a decision this big. Everyone deserves a chance to live no matter how small. and last but not least, Trees aren t the only creation worth saving. HOPE THIS HELPS YOUR DECISIONS IM IN HIGH SCHOOOL AND WROTE THIS FOR CLASS AND WANTED TYO SHARE IT SO ALL CAN BE INFORMED.. PLS THINK AGAIN CONSIDER ALL THE FACTS CONSIDER A LIFE. Thank you! -Carm G. Im sorry but THERE IS NO reason for abortion. And im well experienced for your information. How about instead of judging me take judging form God. If you dont care about what he thinks then your not worth me spending my time talking to you. You could've atleast comentted on my writting skills and im not a tree hugger for one thing this is the only thing i care about this and evolution. Thanks for putting a young person down, but i dont care about what any of you think i have my own opinion and this was not to leture you. Someone asked in singles and dating should i have an abortion i posted this for her. It has alot of facts and could be helpful. Im not going to apoligize cause i dont care about any of you who can be tactful when giving a comment. Instead of only telling me everything you didnt like that i said, you could say im glad you feel so strong about this or its nice to see a young person care about a topic like this. Woow you guys are older than me didnt think you guys cou ... CONTINUED>>>> could be so rude. Never taking a lesson from you. Oh and if anymore commetns posted on how i dont understand well talk to people who regret having abortions, terminating something thats apart of you isnt murder than shoting a family memeber isnt either. It's all about confidence in your self. My aunt has 6 kids. First child a 17 and had her last at 28. She has 2 jobs that are low paid on welfare and is a good mother. She had no help form the men that are the kids dads or even my family members. She thought about abortion after her 4th kid and almost went through with it but she started to realize that she couldnt bring herself to tell her other children that the baby is gone. Her oldest is 11 and youngest is 3, sorry to say thats a good mother, someone who did and is still doing what she needs to for her kids and without any help. Again im not judging, Was not even posting it for most of you who read it. Have a nice day and thats all i have to say. I am way exper expericened for a teen dont care what any of you so called "women" have to say. Lesson 101 a real woman doesnt break someone else down so she can get her opinion or point across. :( :(

Answers:i just found out i was pregnant and thought about abortion but then i realized im against it and well this baby is going to be the best thing in the world. its gonna be hard but its completely worth it im gonna be a good ommy

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Enormous - The Definite Article :The fabulous Enormous supporting B-Movie at The Town Mill in Mansfield 20th Nov 2008. Brilliant. B-Movie drummer Graham Boffey also plays in Enormous. Rock on. ;D

Eddie Izzard: Definite Article (1) :sorry for not uploading anything recently,i've been busy. im going to try and upload Eddie Izzard's Definite Article entirely. This is Part 1. Enjoy!