definition and types of pollution
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Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, its concentration and its persistence. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term. However the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from degradation of DDT
Types of pollutants
Pollutants that the environment has little or no absorptive capacity are called stock pollutants (e.g. persistent synthetic chemicals, non-biodegradable plastics, and heavy metals). Stock pollutants accumulate in the environment over time. The damage they cause increases as more pollutant is emitted, and persists as the pollutant accumulates. Stock pollutants can create a burden for future generations by passing on damage that persists well after the benefits received from incurring that damage have been forgotten.
Fund pollutants are those for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Fund pollutants do not cause damage to the environment unless the emission rate exceeds the receiving environment's absorptive capacity (e.g. carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by plants and oceans). Fund pollutants are not destroyed, but rather converted into less harmful substances, or diluted/dispersed to non-harmful concentrations.
Notable pollutants include the following groups:
- Heavy metals
- Persistent organic pollutants
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Volatile organic compounds
- Environmental xenobiotics
Zones of influence
Pollutants can also be defined by their zones of influence, both horizontally and vertically.
The vertical zone is referred to whether the damage is ground-level or atmospheric. Surface pollutants cause damage by concentrations of the pollutant accumulating near the Earth's surface Global pollutants cause damage by concentrations in the atmosphere
Pollutants can cross international borders and therefore international regulations are needed for their control. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which entered into force in 2004, is an international legally binding agreement for the control of persistent organic pollutants. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are systems to collect and disseminate information on environmental releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from industrial and other facilities.
The European Pollutant Emission Register is a type of PRTR providing access to information on the annual emissions of industrial facilities in the Member States of the European Union, as well as Norway.
Clean Air Act standards. Under the Clean Air Act, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards developed for outdoor air quality. The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are emission standards that are set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which are not covered by the NAAQS.
Clean Water Act standards. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA promulgated national standards for municipal sewage treatment plants, also called publicly owned treatment works, in the Secondary Treatment Regulation. National standards for industrial dischargers are calledEffluent guidelines(for existing sources) andNew Source Performance Standards, and currently cover over 50 industrial categories. In addition, the Act requires states to publish water quality standards for individual water bodies to provide additional protection where the national standards are insufficient.
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Answers:i knw you can recycle glass,and metal to make other things which does not decompose carbon dioxide is bad pollution witch kills the ozone layer that mostly comes from cars you can get radiation from trash burner plants try google for better info this is the best i can do
Answers:Air pollution is a broad term applied to all physical (particulate matter), chemical, and biological agents that modify the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Some definitions also consider physical perturbations such as noise pollution, heat, radiation or light pollution as air pollution. Definitions commonly include the term harmful as a requisite to consider a change to the atmosphere as pollution. Air pollutants are classified as either primary or secondary; a primary air pollutant is one that is emitted directly to the air from a given source, such as the Carbon monoxide produced as a byproduct of combustion, whereas a secondary air pollutant is formed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions involving primary air pollutants. The formation of ozone in photochemical smog is an example of a secondary air pollutant. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic and fragile system. Concern is growing about the global effects of air pollutant emissions, especially global warming. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health.
Answers:what causes air pollution is when a a power station uses coal to make electricity. when the coal is burned it releases Nox and Sox ( nitrus oxide, and sulphur oxide) into the atmosphere. This cause air pollution and acid rain. air pollution can be meased by a carbon menoxide measurer, or even by the amount of weathering on statues due to acid rain.
Answers:Well, that topic can be divided up in different ways. Like this: - Type of water resource - lakes, rivers, ground water, sea water - Type of pollutant - say, bacterial, chemical, organic, pesticides, fertilizers - Source of pollutant - industry, farming, sewage treatment plants. Contamination from farming might be a manageable sized topic. Nitrate and phosphorus are the big items there. You can find a lot of information on how those get into the water, and the possible affects they have, including health problems from drinking water with high nitrates and the problem of the "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico caused by runoff of ag chemicals. Another good one might be bacterial contamination of surface water. Dysentary is the biggest killer of babies in the world, and it is caused by water that is contaminated by bacteria from human and animal waste. The history of that is interesting and the fact that it is still so rampant in undeveloped countries is very important for us all to know. Good luck with this. I think there is a lot of info on the web to help you.