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A temperate deciduous forest, more precisely termed temperate broadleaf forest or temperate broadleaved forest, is a biome found in the eastern and western United States, Canada, central Mexico, southern South America, Europe, West Asia, China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and parts of Russia. A temperate deciduous forest consists of trees that lose their leaves every year. Examples include oak, maple, beech, and elm.
Organisms and their adaptations
Many well-known animals live in this kind of forest. Some examples are the Eastern Gray Squirrel, bears, beavers, foxes, deer, rats, snakes, mice, wolves, raccoons, and large birds of prey like red-tailed hawks. These animals have unique adaptations suited for seasonal life. For example, some rodents store up fat, then hibernate during cold winters. Birds include the bald eagle, nightingale, cardinals, hawks, and the snowy owl.
The plants are adapted to survive in these conditions. For example, trees like the palm, white spruce, and the elm have leaves that absorb water and sunlight. The soaring branches do more than just provide shade for other creatures of this biome; they also provide nutrients necessary for the tree to live. Another example of adaptation: these trees shed their leaves in the winter. By shedding their leaves, they cannot transpire. Consequently, they are able to retain water for the winter. Plants also soak up nutrients from the soil. These plants shed their leaves in fall.
The temperate deciduous forest has a temperate climate, with summer highs of around 80 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (27 to 32 degrees Celsius). Winter highs are around 30 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 to 15 degrees Celsius). Temperate forests get about 35 to 60 inches (900 to 1500 millimeters) of pate]
Humans have often colonized areas in the temperate deciduous forest. They have also harvested wood for timber. As a result, less than one quarter of original forests remain. Temperate forests have also been used for farming.
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera QuercusandLithocarpus, in the familyFagaceae). It usually contains a single seed (rarely two seeds), enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, and borne in a cup-shaped cupule. Acorns vary from 1â€“6 cm long and 0.8â€“4 cm broad. Acorns take between about 6 or 24 months (depending on the species) to mature; see List of Quercus species for details of oak classification, in which acorn morphology and phenology are important factors.
As wildlife forage
Acorns are one of the most important wildlife foods in areas where oaks occur. Acorns, along with other nuts, are termed mast.
Wildlife which eat acorns as an important part of their diets include birds, such as jays, pigeons, some ducks, and several species of woodpeckers. Small mammals that feed on acorns include mice, squirrels and several other rodents.
Large mammals such as pigs, bears, and deer also consume large amounts of acorns: they may constitute up to 25% of the diet of deer in the autumn. In Spain and Portugal pigs are still turned loose in dehesas(largeoak groves) in the autumn, to fill and fatten themselves on acorns. However, acorns are toxic to some other animals, such as horses.
Acorns are attractive to animals because they are large and thus efficiently consumed or cached. Acorns are also rich in nutrients. Percentages vary from species to species, but all acorns contain large amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fats, as well as the minerals calcium, phosphorus and potassium, and the vitaminniacin. Total food energy in an acorn also varies by species, but all compare well with other wild foods and with other nuts.
Acorns also contain bitter tannins, the amount varying with the species. Since tannins, which are plant polyphenols, interfere with an animal's ability to metabolize protein, creatures must adapt in different ways to utilize the nutritional value that acorns contain. Animals may preferentially select acorns that contain fewer tannins.
Animals that cache acorns, such as jays and squirrels, may wait to consume some of these acorns until sufficient groundwater has percolated through them to leach out the tannins. Other animals buffer their acorn diet with other foods. Many insects, birds, and mammals metabolize tannins with fewer ill-effects than humans.
Species of acorn that contain large amounts of tannins are very bitter, astringent, and potentially irritating if eaten raw. This is particularly true of the acorns of red oaks. The acorns of white oaks, being much lower in tannins, are nutty in flavor, which is enhanced if the acorns are given a light roast before grinding.
Tannins can be removed by soaking chopped acorns in several changes of water, until water no longer turns brown. Being rich in fat, acorn flour can spoil or get moldy easily and must be carefully stored. Acorns are also sometimes prepared as a massage oil.
Acorns of the white oak group, Leucobalanus, typically start rooting as soon as they are in contact with the soil (in the fall), then send up the leaf shoot in the spring.
Acorns are too heavy for wind dispersal, and so require other ways to spread. Oaks therefore depend on biological seed dispersal agents to move the acorns beyond the mother tree and into a suitable area for germination (including access to adequate water, sunlight and soil nutrients) ideally a minimum of 20â€“30 m from the parent tree.
Many animals eat unripe acorns on the tree or ripe acorns from the ground, with no reproductive benefit to the oak, but some animals, such as squirrels and jays serve as seed dispersal agents. Jays and squirrels that scatter-hoard acorns in caches for future use, effectively plant acorns in a variety of locations in which it is possible for them to germinate and thrive.
Although jays and squirrels retain remarkably large mental maps of cache locations and return to consume them, the odd acorn may be lost, or a jay or squirrel may die before consuming all of its stores. A small number of acorns manage to germinate and survive, producing the next generation of oaks.
Scatter-hoarding behavior depends on jays and squirrels associating with plants that provide good packets of food that are nutritionally valuable, but not too big for the dispersal agent to handle. The beak sizes of jays determine how large acorns may get before jays ignore them.
Acorns germinate on different
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in the operation of an agricultural area or farm.
The Industrial Revolution
With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward. Instead of harvestinggrain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks.
Power for agricultural machinery was originally supplied by horses or other domesticated animals. With the invention of steam power came the portable engine, and later the traction engine, a multipurpose, mobile energy source that was the ground-crawling cousin to the steam locomotive. Agricultural steam engines took over the heavy pulling work of horses, and were also equipped with a pulley that could power stationary machines via the use of a long belt. The steam-powered machines were low-powered by today's standards but, because of their size and their low gear ratios, they could provide a large drawbar pull. Their slow speed led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, and darn slow."
Internal combustion engines
The internal combustion engine; first the petrol engine, and later diesel engines; became the main source of power for the next generation of tractors. These engines also contributed to the development of the self-propelled, combined harvester and thresher, or combine harvester (also shortened to 'combine'). Instead of cutting the grain stalks and transporting them to a stationary threshing machine, these combines cut, threshed, and separated the grain while moving continuously through the field.
Combines might have taken the harvesting job away from tractors, but tractors still do the majority of work on a modern farm. They are used to pull implements—machines that till the ground, plant seed, and perform other tasks.
Tillage implements prepare the soil for planting by loosening the soil and killing weeds or competing plants. The best-known is the plow, the ancient implement that was upgraded in 1838 by John Deere. Plows are now used less frequently in the U.S. than formerly, with offset disks used instead to turn over the soil, and chisels used to gain the depth needed to retain moisture.
The most common type of seeder is called a planter, and spaces seeds out equally in long rows, which are usually two to three feet apart. Some crops are planted by drills, which put out much more seed in rows less than a foot apart, blanketing the field with crops. Transplanters automate the task of transplanting seedlings to the field. With the widespread use of plastic mulch, plastic mulch layers, transplanters, and seeders lay down long rows of plastic, and plant through them automatically.
After planting, other implements can be used to cultivate weeds from between rows, or to spread fertilizer and pesticides. Haybalers can be used to tightly package grass or alfalfa into a storable form for the winter months.
Modern irrigation relies on machinery. Engines, pumps and other specialized gear provide water quickly and in high volumes to large areas of land. Similar types of equipment can be used to deliver fertilizers and pesticides.
Besides the tractor, other vehicles have been adapted for use in farming, including trucks, airplanes, and helicopters, such as for transporting crops and making equipment mobile, to aerial spraying and livestockherd management.
New technology and the future
Though modern harvesters and planters will do a better job than their predecessors, the combine of today still cuts, threshes, and separates grain in essentially the same way it has al
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Answers:they are changing migration patterns because of global warming.
Answers:I can help with oryx only since they're my 2nd favorite antelope. Competitions: Other herbivores - for food. Adaptations: - Independent of water, draws enough moisture from diet, but do travel great distances when in need of water. - Hair under the hooves that enables better movement on loose sand - Long horns used for self defense against predators. - Digging for bulbs (known as tsammas) and roots that serves as food and a water source (digging is done with forefeet) - Also eats wild melons and cucumbers as both food and water source. - They are nomadic animals. Just for interest's sake the Afrikaans name is Gemsbok.
Answers:Well my friend here we go: One adaptation is that jaguars are good swimmers, this is unique to the jaguar and the tiger among the wild cats. In fact jaguars are among the terrestrial mammals' best swimmers. This is an adaptation of course, as many preys live close to water or inside it. Rivers provide prey in the form of fish, turtles, snakes, or crocodiles. In the rain-forest is really hard to hunt, so the jaguar has an advantage in the waters. Also it is easier hunt close to the water: a deer cannot swim, so it does not have any escape from a jaguar's attack. Other is that jaguars are terrific climbers. Most of the rain-forest's animals live in the trees: monkeys, birds, snakes, iguanas all of them are potential preys for a jaguar. Jaguars sometimes climb trees to prepare an ambush, killing their prey with one powerful bite. Also the jaguar hunts during the night, when most of the animals are sleeping. This is an adaptation related to the hunting. Here are some facts that are going to help you: *Type: mammal *Diet: Carnivore *Average lifespan: 12-15 years (wild), up to 25 years (captivity) *Size: Head and body, 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m); tail, 27.5 to 36 in (70 to 91 cm) *Weight: 100 to 250 lbs (45 to 113 kg) *Protection Status: Near Threatened *Diet: At least 85 different species. Fishes, snakes, turtles, iguanas, monkeys, birds, rodents, deers, tapirs, anteaters, crocodiles, and many more. *Habitat: Chiefly Rain-forest. In northern Mexico and Southern U.S. its main habitat is the savannah. Also mangrove forest and mountains. *Appearance: Most jaguars are tan or orange with distinctive black spots, dubbed "rosettes" because they are shaped like roses. Some jaguars are so dark they appear to be spotless, though their markings can be seen on closer inspection. *Behavior: Jaguars live alone and define territories of many square miles by marking with their waste or clawing trees. *Reproduction:Females have litters of one to four cubs, which are blind and helpless at birth. The mother stays with them and defends them fiercely from any animal that may approach even their own father. Young jaguars learn to hunt by living with their mothers for two years or more. *Range: Jaguars are native to the following countries: Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; United States (Arizona); Venezuela. Jaguars are currently extinct in the following countries: El Salvador, and Uruguay.
Answers:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puma Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey. On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day. Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers. Adult black bears may be able to kill pumas and steal their kills but generally conflict between the two predators does not occur. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located.  Puma safety tips * Carry a firearm and be prepared to use it if charged at by a puma. Although, the noise from firing a warning shot should in most cases be enough to scare off a puma. * Do not hike alone; go in groups with adults supervising children. * If confronted by a puma, do not run; that might stimulate its instinct to chase. Instead, stand and face the animal, making eye contact. * Pick up young children without bending or turning from the puma (if possible). (Comment: When under an attack by a dog, experts recommend NOT picking up a child; because that act may be interpreted as you attacking. And that would encourage the dog(s) to join in the supposed attack. Instead place yourself between the animal and the child. Whether or not this applies to cougars is open.) * Do everything possible to appear larger or intimidating, including raising arms wildly, opening up jacket, and throwing stones and branches. * Do not crouch down or bend over; this may create the appearance of an ordinary quadruped prey rather than a typically non-prey biped. * Fight back if attacked. Pumas have been repelled with rocks, sticks, garden tools, kicks, and bare hands; a well placed kick to the face has been known to work. * The best place to hit a puma is on the nose. * Remove dense and low-lying vegetation that provide good hiding places for pumas. * Install motion-sensitive outdoor lighting. * Keep pets from roaming and never feed pets outside. Be wary when leaving pets outside, particularly at dawn and dusk. * Do not climb a tree as pumas can climb just as well as (if not much better than) humans. Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk. Puma populations of the United States and Canada Hunted almost to extinction in the United States and eastern Canada, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri, Michigan and throughout Kansas including the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States. There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gasp Peninsula of Quebec. Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food. There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est. circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado.