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A temperate deciduous forest, more precisely termed temperate broadleaf forest or temperate broadleaved forest, is a biome found in the eastern and western United States, Canada, central Mexico, southern South America, Europe, West Asia, China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and parts of Russia. A temperate deciduous forest consists of trees that lose their leaves every year. Examples include oak, maple, beech, and elm.
Organisms and their adaptations
Many well-known animals live in this kind of forest. Some examples are the Eastern Gray Squirrel, bears, beavers, foxes, deer, rats, snakes, mice, wolves, raccoons, and large birds of prey like red-tailed hawks. These animals have unique adaptations suited for seasonal life. For example, some rodents store up fat, then hibernate during cold winters. Birds include the bald eagle, nightingale, cardinals, hawks, and the snowy owl.
The plants are adapted to survive in these conditions. For example, trees like the palm, white spruce, and the elm have leaves that absorb water and sunlight. The soaring branches do more than just provide shade for other creatures of this biome; they also provide nutrients necessary for the tree to live. Another example of adaptation: these trees shed their leaves in the winter. By shedding their leaves, they cannot transpire. Consequently, they are able to retain water for the winter. Plants also soak up nutrients from the soil. These plants shed their leaves in fall.
The temperate deciduous forest has a temperate climate, with summer highs of around 80 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (27 to 32 degrees Celsius). Winter highs are around 30 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 to 15 degrees Celsius). Temperate forests get about 35 to 60 inches (900 to 1500 millimeters) of pate]
Humans have often colonized areas in the temperate deciduous forest. They have also harvested wood for timber. As a result, less than one quarter of original forests remain. Temperate forests have also been used for farming.
The temperate deciduous broadleaf forest (TDBF) is composed of broad-leaf angiosperm trees like the oaks, maples, and beeches familiar to many Americans and Europeans. The forests exist best in moderate climates that are neither too hot nor too cold and neither too wet nor too dry. In addition to the temperate zone, deciduous forests are found in tropical and sub-tropical climates in open savannas and/or in closed forests. While there are roughly thirty families and sixty-five genera in the TDBF, variation in the precise definition and defined area of the forest make absolute numbers impossible. With thousands of species, the TDBF is a highly diverse biome. Worldwide, there are five major groups of TDBFs. Within each group, botanists define TDBFs by the species that tend to occur in a given area. These collections of species, together with their environment, are called associations. Eastern North America today contains the most extensive TDBF. The forest reaches from about longitude 95Â°W (just west of the Mississippi River) to the Atlantic coast and from 30 to 45Â°N, thereby forming a quadrant that includes most of the northeastern quarter of the United States. The eastern United States TDBF was almost completely deforested for agricultural purposes by 1850. At that time, land was opened for agriculture in the Mississippi valley, and many farms were abandoned. Pines grew well in the remaining grassy fields, but after a catastrophic hurricane in 1937, the TDBF grew back. Today, there is much more TDBF in the United States than there was one hundred years ago (though still less than before the arrival of European settlers). There are nine generally recognized associations in the United States TDBF, each defined by differences in vegetation (see accompanying table). Though the species are representative of common dominants, many other species exist. TDBF associations are not completely separate. Many species, such as northern red oak and sugar maple, exist in more than one association. Nor are the boundaries between the associations sharp and easily identifiable. In particular, the Western Mesophytic association can be difficult to distinguish from its neighbors to the east (Mixed Mesophytic) and west (Oak-Hickory). Associations can change with time too. The Oak-Chestnut association is now almost completely devoid of chestnut, but many people still use the association name even though it is now mostly oak and maple. Association names in North America and elsewhere are most useful for distinguishing broad differences in forest type often associated with variation in soils, topography, and climate. The European TDBF, stretching through most of Europe (except for very hot and cold areas) from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, is the second-largest TDBF. Due to the moderating influences of the Gulf Stream, the TDBF exists as far as 60Â°N in northwestern Europe. Forests in Europe have been extensively modified by humans for more than two thousand years and are some of the most manipulated forests in the world. In the northern European TDBF, birch species are common, while in the middle European latitudes, beech (Fagus sylvatica ) is widely distributed and commercially valuable. Towards the south, various oak and maple species abound. As in North America, much of the once-cleared TDBF is now regrowing. The European TDBF is replaced by drought-resistant shrubs and evergreen broadleaf trees in the south and the boreal coniferous forest in the north. The last three TDBF areas are much smaller than the first two. East Asia, from 30Â° to 60Â°N and from central Japan to longitude 125Â°E in the northwest and longitude 115Â°E in the southwest, originally maintained very large forests. Today, even though the species mix is still very diverse, much of the East Asian forest outside of Japan is currently under cultivation and most existing forest fragments are protected refuges or in areas unsuitable for agriculture. Nearly all TDBF genera are present in East Asia, especially China. The Near East between 35Â° and 45Â°N, including areas around the eastern Black Sea and mountainous regions in Iran and near the Caspian Sea, supports a diverse TDBF. Finally, a narrow strip of South America including southern Chile and Argentina contain TDBF. Acacia caven and seven Nothofagus species are also found there. In nearly all cases, the deciduous trees of South America occur in mixtures with evergreen broadleaf species. Of the three major TDBFs, East Asia has by far the greatest diversity, followed by North America and Europe. East Asia was glaciated less severely than America and Europe, so most species were able to survive with little difficulty. In North America, the north-to-south orientation of major mountain ranges allowed species to migrate, and species diversity here is only slightly lower than in East Asia. In Europe, on the other hand, the east-to-west mountains caused the TDBF to be trapped by advancing glaciers. Many modern European TDBF species survived only in the Near East TDBF and migrated back after the glaciers retreated. Consequently, Europe has very low-species diversity. TDBFs are generally restricted to a warm temperate climate with four identifiable seasons in which the average temperature of the coldest month is between 3 and 18Â°C and the average temperature of the warmest month exceeds 10Â°C. The length of the frost-free period ranges from 120 to over 250 days. Precipitation is year-round and averages between 80 and 200 centimeters per year. Snowfall can range from nonexistent in the southeastern United States to extremely heavy in northern habitats. Climates that are wet and warm all year are occupied by tropical forest consisting of broadleaf evergreen trees. As climates become drier, as occurs at the western edge of the Oak-Hickory association, drought stresses are too extreme for TDBF and grasses become dominant. To the north of the major TDBF, extreme cold, short growing seasons and poor soils favor evergreen coniferous forests. TDBF soils tend to be deep and fertile and, unlike some soils in the northern coniferous forest, do not freeze year-round. For this reason, TDBFs have historically been popular for agricultural use. Deciduous leaves are the most distinctive feature of the TDBF. In the fall, spectacular reds, oranges, and yellows produce breathtaking displays across the TDBF. Why does this occur? During autumn, as temperatures cool and days shorten, trees send hormonal signals to their leaves causing them to turn colors and fall off the branch. First, leaves form a barrier between the leaf and the branch, known as the abscission layer. At the same time, chlorophyll, the compound that gathers light for photosynthesis, begins to degrade in the leaf. Many of the nutrients in the leaf are sucked back into the tree for next year's leaves. Chlorophyll is responsible for the usual green leaf color: once it is gone, yellow and orange pigments that were there all along become visible. Some of the sugar in the leaves of oaks and maples may be converted into red colors. Once the leaf is totally shut down and no longer conducting any photosynthesis, the abscission layer becomes very brittle. Any small breeze can snap the leaf off at this point. In the spring, using carbon from special storage cells in the trunk, trees grow a new batch of leaves. In an evolutionary adaptation designed to maximize the amount of light received, shrubs and small trees growing in the understory will begin growth before the overstory. The study of any recurring biological cycle and its connection to climate is called phenology. Patterns of bird migration and insect outbreaks are examples of phenological cycles. For centuries, scientists have been studying phenology in the TDBF. In the deciduous forest, phenology refers to the timing of spring leaf growth and fall leaf drop and their relationship to climatic variation. Observational evidence has shown that TDBF phenology is highly sensitive to variation in weather. Warm springs will cause leaves to grow earlier, sometimes by up to as much as one month. Conversely, plants respond to a cold fall by dropping th
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Answers:All animals have adaptations. Organisms are required to adapt to their environment or they will perish. Skunks are able to spray their enemies to incapacitate them with the stench. Squirrels are able to balance on very narrow platforms like thin branches or electricity lines and run along them at relatively high speed. Sparrows blend in closely with the dirt. They often stick near the dirt and take 'dirt baths' which help to increase their camouflage and clean them of parasites. Just start naming creatures and you should be able to identify ways they've adapted to their environment.
Answers:Heres a start you will need to research each category fungi --reproduce via spoors so that the wind can carry them to new habitats (ie logs, leaves, etc.) decomposers...can make their own food. (Instead, consumers must feed on other organisms, including producers and other consumers.Most animals, for example, eat plants or other animals that have fed on plants.) Decomposers feed on the tissues of dead or dying producers and consumers. Bacteria and fungi are common decomposers. saprophites(a bacteria--produces enzymes to digest the food externally then vacuum it such as fungi etc) lichen-- earthworms nematodes (soil invertebrates) The best wood rotters in the natural world are fungi (Barron, 26). The major wood rotters belong to the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. These fungi have the distinctive capacity to infiltrate and enzymatically digest the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components of the hardest wood. Roughly 80 billion tons of carbon are returned to the atmosphere each year as carbon dioxide through the biodegradation of woody material. Consequently, fungi play an important role in the carbon cycle (Barron, 27).
Answers:1) 3 threats (and how to stop them) - Industrialisation and the resulting pollutants cause acid rain which damages deciduous trees' leaves and causes the production of smaller fruit and less seeds. Even slight damage to trees can easily kill them because it reduces their resistance to frost, fungi, and deadly diseases and pests. To protect forests from acid rain humans simply have to burn less fossil fuels or find a way of removing or 'cancelling out' pollutants. Often people bring new species to forests. This can have a grave effect on the forest because it throws the food chain out of balance. New plants or animals can kill off native species. To protect forests never release or introduce non-native species into one. If you are unsure as to the consequences of releasing an insect or animal or planting a flower, call a local forestry agent and ask before you do it! Global warming has had measurable effects on the Earth's Deciduous forests. As the Earth's temperature gradually increases, less and less precipitation falls on the deciduous forest. Less precipitation means less growth. The ability of the temperate deciduous forest to regenerate itself is severely impaired. To protect forests from global warming the latter must be stopped. Humans must either release less CO2 into the atmosphere or come up with a way of reversing its effects. 2) 3 adaptations- Migration - a wide variety of birds migrate to warmer places in the winter so they can find a steady source of food. Hibernation - many of the mammals hibernate during the cold winter months when food is in short supply. This means they conserve energy and can live longer with less food. Food storage is another adaptation of mammals. The nuts and seeds that are plentiful during the summer are gathered by squirrels and chipmunks and stored so that they have a reliable source of food energy in the winter months.
Answers:Lichens (pronounced LI-ken), fungi (FUN-guy), and moss are simple plants without roots that grow all over the arctic and provide an important source of food and energy for other wildlife. Lichens are quite small. They attach themselves directly to the rock, so they can grow where there is no soil. Lichens can grow in extremely cold climates, so they survive easily in the freezing Arctic weather. There are over 900 different species of lichens in the Arctic. Fungi are simple plants that have no roots, shoots, stems, or leaves. You ve probably eaten at least one type of fungus that grows in the arctic mushrooms! Fungi create energy by releasing special chemicals, called enzymes (rhymes with ten times ), that break down organic matter. Fungi play an important role in northern ecosystems because they do important jobs, such as decomposing dead organic matter. Although these are important plants, scientists have completed only a few scientific studies of arctic fungi. Mosses are small plants that grow in large clusters that often look like carpets. Because they have no roots, mosses can grow on bare surfaces like rock faces. There are over 500 species of mosses in the arctic. They usually grow where there is a source of water, such as in the streams that form when the snow melts. In fact, there is so much moss in the arctic that much of the soil in arctic regions, like muskeg, is made out of decaying moss. The eider duck lives along the coastline of Canada's arctic, as well as in other artic countries, like Norway, Iceland, and Russia. The eider duck can dive underwater to catch its food - it even uses its wings to swim underwater! If something scares these ducks, they can fly right out of the water into the air. Eider ducks like to eat crustaceans, or shellfish, like molluscs, mussels, and clams, as well as other small marine animals, like starfish and sea urchins. They have very sensitive bills that help them find their food in the mud. Eider ducks produce warm down feathers. When these soft feathers fall out, the ducks use them to line their nests. Their down is also used by humans to make quilts and pillows. Maybe you have an eider duck feather comforter at home on your bed! An arctic tern chick sitting in a small hole, probably its nest. Terns are members of the gull family that nest north of the tree line (on the tundra). They make their nests out of grass, sand or small pebbles. Their nests are quite simple, usually nothing more than small holes scraped into the ground. Terns are very aggressive and attack other animals that enter their territory. They are usually grey and white and their head feathers turn black in the spring and summer. Terns have pointed wings and their tail is forked. They like to dive into the water when they feed. Arctic terns eat small fish, shrimp, krill, insects, and small invertebrates. Jaegers (YAY-gurr) are seabirds that have long pointed wings, a hooked bill, and webbed feet. They are very aggressive predators. Instead of catching food for themselves, they attack gulls and terns while they are flying and force them to spit out their food. After the gull or tern has thrown up its food, the jaeger catches the vomit in midair. While jaegers are nesting, they eat small mammals, birds, fish and insects. Although jaegers are marine birds that live on the ocean, they nest in the tundra. Jaegers make a hollow nest in the bare ground, which they sometimes line with moss or grass. Female jaegers lay two eggs each year and both the male and the female take care of the eggs until they are hatched. Arctic hares live beyond the tree line in the tundra. They are the largest type of Canadian hares and weigh 3.2 to 5.4 kilograms. They have big feet, which act like snowshoes to stop them from falling into the snow. Arctic hares like to eat willow leaves, willow shoots, willow bark, willow roots, grasses, herbs and flowers. Many arctic hares can be found on Axel Heiberg Island, which is very near to the North Pole. Hares change colour with the seasons: in the winter they are white and in the summer their brown coats help them to blend into their surroundings. When hares are being chased by wolves, they hide among muskoxen. Muskoxen are plant eaters, so the arctic hares are not afraid of being eaten by the them. Sled dogs were and are a very important part of life in the north. Northern native people were the first to develop a way of travel that uses 2 to 12 dogs to pull a sled. Just like any team, dog teams have leaders, usually the front one or two dogs. Lead dogs respond to the voice command of the driver Polar bears are large bears that live on the arctic ice. They are very large, up to 3 metres long, and have white fur. The polar bear is a very good swimmer - he can dive three metres deep into the water and can stay under water for up to two minutes. How do polar bears survive the arctic's cold weather? Well, they have a thick lay