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davisson germer experiment animation
Structure of hydrogen atom and line spectrum of hydrogen atom by Joseph George. :What is the structure of a hydrogen atom and how a hydrogen atom with its only one electron can emit a number of spectrum lines? The presently accepted wave mechanical model describes an atom consists of an extremely small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons and, the electrons in an atom remain in distinct orbitals around the nucleus. Some interpret, the electrons in an atom as a series of standing waves or stationary waves around the nucleus. Anyhow, the central idea about the model is that the tiny nucleus of an atom is surrounded by fast moving electrons and this high speed motion counteracts the attraction from the nucleus and prevents the electrons from falling into the nucleus. When an atom absorbs energy, an electron jumps from a low energy level to a higher energy level, that is, from an inner orbit to an outer orbit. This "excited state" cannot be sustained so the electron returns to its ground state. This jump causes the energy difference between the two energy levels is released as a photon. The acceptance of this wave mechanical model of atom is essentially based on the proposal of de Broglie's matter wave theory published in 1924 and followed by the experiments conducted by GP Thompson and Davisson and Germer with artificially accelerated electrons. In their experiments, the electron beams are created by applying high voltages between the anode and cathode in the experimental setup. But today we know that, in a ...
How is light emitted from an atom?, The new explanation of light emission from atoms. :The present wave mechanical model of atom describes the electrons in an atom as a series of standing waves or matter waves which orbit the nucleus at very high speed. The acceptance of this theory is based on the experiments conducted by GP Thompson and Davisson and Germer are by "artificially accelerated" electrons. The electron beams are created by applying high voltages between the anode and cathode in the experimental setup. But unfortunately, in an atom there is no such a force which can consistently accelerate its electrons and so the present wave mechanical model of atom is simply wrong. There are three factors that determine the electron configuration in a multi-electron atom. They are 1) attraction from the nucleus, 2) repulsion between electrons (repulsion between the electrons in a shell and between inner and outer shells), and 3) buoyant force exerted by space matter (watch video structure of atom, the new atom model). The density of space matter is greater at the near surface of the nucleus and it decreases with the increasing of the distance from the nucleus. Since each of the different space matter regions with precise radiuses from the centre of the nucleus has unique densities, each of those regions act as resonant columns with unique natural frequencies. An atom has enormous number of resonant columns in it. We can call a resonant column in an atom as a shell. There are three types of shells in an atom. 1) Electron shells. The electron shells are the ...