conservation of plants and animals
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Conservation agriculture can best be thought of as by the statement given out by the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) â€œCA is a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environmentâ€� (FAO 2007). With conservation agriculture (CA) there are two important elements that come with this process, two products that would seem unlikely put together. Agriculture and Conservation are two elements that seem unlikely but can coexist with each other. Agriculture according to the New Standard Encyclopedia is â€œone of the most important sectors in the economies of most nationsâ€� (New Standard 1992). At the same time conservation is the use of resources in a manner that safely maintains a resource that can be used by humans. Conservation has become critical on the fact that the world population has increased over the years and more food needs to be produced every year (New Standard 1992). Sometimes referred to as "agricultural environmental management", conservation agriculture may be sanctioned and funded through conservation programs promulgated through agricultural legislation, such as the U.S. Farm Bill.
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has determined that CA has three key principles that producers (farmers) can proceed through in order to do the process of CA. These three principles outline what conservationists and producers believe can be done to conserve what we use for a longer period of time.
The first key principle in CA is practicing minimum mechanical soil disturbance which is essential to maintaining minerals within the soil, stopping erosion, and preventing water loss from occurring within the soil. In the past agriculture has looked at soil tillage as a main process in the introduction of new crops to an area. It was believed that tilling the soil would increase fertility within the soil through mineralization* that takes place in the soil. Also tilling of soil can cause severe erosion and crusting of soils which will lead to a decrease in soil fertility. Today tillage is seen as a way as destroying organic matter that can be provided within the soil cover. No-till farming has caught on as a process that can save soils organic levels for a longer period of time, and still allow the soil to be productive for longer periods of time (FAO 2007). Also with the process of tilling cause the time and labor for producing that crop. If no-till practices were being done then the producer would see a reduction in production cost for a certain crop because they no longer are tilling the ground. Tillage of the ground would require the farmer more money due to the fact of fuel for tractors or feed for the animals pulling the plough in order to till the ground. Also the producer would see a reduction in labor; this would be because the producer does not have to be in the fields as long as they would if he/she was a conventional farmer.
The second key principle in CA is much like the first principle in dealing with protecting the soil. The principle of managing the top soil to create a permanent organic soil cover can allow for growth of organisms within the soil structure. This growth will break down the mulch that is left on the soil surface. The breaking down of this mulch will produce a high organic matter level which will act as a fertilizer for the soil surface. If the practices of CA were being done for many years and enough organic matter was being built up at the surface, then a layer of mulch would start to form. This layer would help in preventing soil erosion from taking place and ruining the soils profile or layout. In the article â€œThe role of conservation agriculture and sustainable agricultureâ€� the layer of mulch that is built up over time will start to become like a buffer zone between soil and mulch that will help reduce wind and water erosion. Also, with this, comes the protection of a soils surface when rain is in the process of falling to the ground. Rainfall on land that is not protected by a layer of mulch is left open to the elements of being impacted directly by the rain. But when soils are covered under a layer of mulch, the ground is protected in a way so that the ground is not directly impacted by rainfall (Hobbs et al. 2007). This type of ground cover would also help in keeping both the temperature and moisture levels of the soil at a higher level rather than if it was tilled every year (FAO 2007).
The third and final principle that is exercised by the FAO is the practice of crop rotation with more than two crop species. According to an article published in the Physiological Transactions of the Royal Society called â€œThe role of conservation agriculture and sustainable agricultureâ€� crop rotation can be used best as a â€œdisease controlâ€� against other preferred crops (Hobbs et al. 2007). This process will not allow pests such as insects and weeds to be set into a rotation with specific crops. Rotational crops will act as a natural insecticide and herbicide against specific crops. Not allowing insects or weeds to establish a pattern within fields will help to eliminate problems with yield reduction and infestations within fields (FAO 2007). Crop rotation can also help build up a soils infrastructure. Establishing crops in a rotation allows for an extensive build up of rooting zones which will allow for better water infiltration (Hobbs et al. 2007).
- mineralization - The break down of organic mollecules in the soil into phosphates, nitrates and all the other "ates" which are then in a form which plants can utilize. Plowing increases the amount of oxygen in the soil and increases the aerobic processes, hastening the break down of organic material. Thus more nutrients are available for the next crop but at the same time, the soil is depleted more quickly of its nutrient reserves.
In Conservation Agriculture there are many examples that can be looked towards as a way of farming but at the same time conserving. These practices that are done now are known well by most producers. The process of no-till is one that follows the first principle of CA, with doing minimal mechanical soil disturbance. But no-till also brings other benefits to the producer who does no-till. According to the FAO tillage is one of the most â€œenergy consumingâ€� processes that can be done, in other words it takes a lot of labor, time, and fuel to do the process of tillage. Producers can save 30% to 40% of time and labor by practicing the no-till process. (FAO 2007)
Besides conserving the soil, there are also other examples of how CA is used in the world today. According to an article in Science called â€œFarming and the Fate of Wild Natureâ€� there are also two more kinds of CA that can be used. The practice of Wildlife-Friendly Farming and Land Sparing are ideas that can be used if a producer is looking to be more conservative towards biodiversity (Green, et al. 2005).
The idea of Wildlife-Friendly Farming is a practice of setting aside land that will not be developed by the producer (farmer). This land will be set aside so that biodiversity has a chance to establish itself within areas along with agricultural fields. At the same time inside the fields the producer is taking attempts to lower the amount of fertilizer and pesticides used within the fields so that organisms and microbial activity have a chance to establish themselves in the soil and habitat as a whole (Green, et al. 2005). But as in all systems, not all can be perfect. In order to create a habitat su
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Soil conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earthâ€™s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination. It is a component of environmental soil science.
Crops and conservation
Decisions regarding appropriate crop rotation, cover crops, and planted windbreaks are central to the ability of surface soils to retain their integrity, both with respect to erosive forces and chemical change from nutrient depletion. Crop rotation is simply the conventional alternation of crops on a given field, so that nutrient depletion is avoided from repetitive chemical uptake/deposition of single crop growth.
Cover crops serve the function of protecting the soil from erosion, weed establishment or excess evapotranspiration; however, they may also serve vital soil chemistry functions. For example, legumes can be ploughed under to augment soil nitrates, and other plants have the ability to metabolize soil contaminants or alter adverse pH. The cover crop Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) has been used in Nigeria to increase phosphorus availability after application of rock phosphate. Some of these same precepts are applicable to urban landscaping, especially with respect to ground-cover selection for erosion control and weed suppression. soil is one of the three main natural resources alongside with water and air.
Windbreaks are created by planting sufficiently dense rows or stands of trees at the windward exposure of an agricultural field subject to wind erosion. Evergreenspecies are preferred to achieve year-round protection; however, as long as foliage is present in the seasons of bare soil surfaces, the effect of deciduous trees may also be adequate.
There are also conventional practices that farmers have invoked for centuries. These fall into two main categories: contour farming and terracing, standard methods recommended by the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service , whose Code 330 is the common standard. Contour farming was practiced by the ancient Phoenicians, and is known to be effective for slopes between two and ten percent. Contour plowing can increase crop yields from 10 to 50 percent, partially as a result from greater soil retention.
Keyline design is an enhancement of contour farming, where the total watershed properties are taken into account in forming the contour lines. Terracing is the practice of creating benches or nearly level layers on a hillside setting. Terraced farming is more common on small farms and in underdeveloped countries, since mechanized equipment is difficult to deploy in this setting.
Human overpopulation is leading to destruction of tropical forests due to widening practices of slash-and-burn and other methods of subsistence farming necessitated by famines in lesser developed countries. A sequel to the deforestation is typically large scale erosion, loss of soil nutrients and sometimes total desertification.
Perimeter runoff control
Trees, shrubs and groundcovers are also effective perimeter treatment for soil erosion prevention, by insuring any surface flows are impeded. A special form of this perimeter or inter-row treatment is the use of a â€œgrasswayâ€� that both channels and dissipates runoff through surface friction, impeding surface runoff, and encouraging infiltration of the slowed surface water.
Salinity in soil is caused by irrigating the crops by salty water during the evaporation the water from the soil evaporates leaving the soil behind causing salinization .Salinization causes the soil structure to break down causing infertility and the plants cannot grow.
The ions responsible for salination are: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl-. Salinity is estimated to affect about one third of all the earthâ€™s arable land. Soil salinity adversely affects the metabolism of most crops, and erosion effects usually follow vegetation failure. Salinity occurs on drylands from overirrigation and in areas with shallow saline water tables. In the case of over-irrigation, salts are deposited in upper soil layers as a byproduct of most soil infi
Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.
Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit.
Energy conservation policies
Electrical energy conservation is an important element of energy policy. Energy conservation reduces the energy consumption and energy demand per capita and thus offsets some of the growth in energy supply needed to keep up with population growth. This reduces the rise in energy costs, and can reduce the need for new power plants, and energy imports. The reduced energy demand can provide more flexibility in choosing the most preferred methods of energy production.
By reducing emissions, energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortages, and is a more environmentally being alternative to increased energy production.
Energy conservation by country
The Republic of India
Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) [http://www.pcra.org www.pcra.org] is an Indian government body created in 1976 and engaged in promoting energy efficiency and conservation in every walk of life. In the recent past PCRA has done mass media campaigns in television, radio & print media. An impact assessment survey by a third party revealed that due to these mega campaigns by PCRA, overall awareness level have gone up leading to saving of fossil fuels worth crores of rupees besides reducing pollution.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an Indian governmental organization created in 2002 responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation.
The [http://www.asiaeec-col.eccj.or.jp/index.html Energy Conservation Center] promotes energy efficiency in every aspect of Japan. Private entities are implementing the efficient use of energy for industries.
In Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) has been promoting the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. It was created as a project financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Ministry of Energy Water (MEW) under the management of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and gradually established itself as an independent technical national center although it continues to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as indicated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between MEW and UNDP on June 18, 2007.
At the end of 2006, the European Union-EU pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020. The 'European Union Energy Efficiency Action Plan' is long awaited. As part of the EU's [http://www.ademe.fr/partenaires/odyssee/pdf/save2000.pdf SAVE Programme], aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour, the Boiler Efficiency Directive specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels. The European Commission is funding large-scale research projects to learn about success factors for effective energy conservation programmes.
Energy conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. Key factors behind this are the Government's commitment to reducing carbon emissions, the projected 'energy gap' in UK electricity generation, and the increasing reliance on imports to meet national energy needs. Domestic housing and road transport are currently the two biggest problem areas.
Responsibility for energy conservation fall between three Government departments although is led by the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC). The Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) is still responsible for energy standards in buildings, and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) retains a residual interest in energy insofar as it leads to emissions of CO2, the main greenhouse gas. The Department for Transport retains many responsibilities
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Answers:Through conservation we can ensure a better life for all of us. We would be using all our resources optimally, which means we'll have enough to last us for several more years. Additionally, we'll be cutting out on pollution and also saving various species of plants and animals that are close to extinction. As compared to the advantages, the disadvantage isn't big enough. Only one thing that I can say is - conservation requires a large scale change of attitude and lifestyle. For instance, if we talk of conserving water, there are various small measures which we need to implement at home. Some of them are given at http://www.bewaterwise.com/tips01.html However, if we are willing to conserve making these small adjustments to our way of life isn't a challenge!
Answers:Animals being mobile can avoid direct exposure to sunlight and low humidity during the day. They can migrate away, burrow into cooler, moister conditions or at least find shade. Breeding is timed to avoid the periods of greatest stress. Laying eggs or providing milk uses a lot of water. Animals use a number of conservation techniques such as by being nocturnal, crepuscular (active at dawn and dusk) or undergoing aestivation. Some animals alternate between multiple modes as conditions change seasonally. Rattlesnakes may be diurnal and crepuscular in spring and fall but shift to primarily nocturnal and crepuscular as the heat increases in the summer months. For those that are active in days heat they may move very quickly to new shelter like lizards that become bipedal to keep their bodies away from the hot ground while running. Road runners are avian examples. Insects are able to pierce and suck fluids from tough desert fauna. So they take water the plants stored. Desert rodents have kidneys that are capable of producing highly concentrated urine to conserve on water. Other creature excrete uric acid so use less water. Some rodents no longer have sweat glands to limit passive water loss. Breathing is another point of loss so water is recaptured in the nasal passages. Vultures urinate on their legs so they can cool by evaporation but not use up water. Many birds are migratory visitors to the desert. Resident avian species mostly eat arthropods, scavenge or are birds of prey. Other species will be nomadic following the erratic rains through the arid regions like the Crimson Chat, Epthianura tricolor does. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2997466 http://www.nhbs.com/nomadic_desert_birds_tefno_132626.html http://books.google.com/books?id=G2mVCD7yjx4C&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=Nomadic+Desert+Birds+crimson+chat&source=web&ots=wnStuKaYmh&sig=I1l78xL7LSOkeTyeKIlytRRlu8I&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result http://books.google.com/books?id=Lb5I0tcnYNkC&pg=RA1-PA370&lpg=RA1-PA370&dq=desert+vulture+urination&source=web&ots=Z5Iexghg6w&sig=oFSDNibiTE_nrXHz_8yg2TH4zFw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result
Answers:Banning of illegal tree cutting,planting more & more trees,monetary incentive for extraordinary work in this field would work better. Killing wild animals should be banned,stringent rules,heavy penalties should be imposed on offenders. One thing more,two & four wheelers in India need to be minimised as these consume lot of diesel & petrol,need more wider roads which calls for tree felling in both rural and urban areas. More vehicles means more pollution,more accidents so control is must,Automobile companies have turned India into Junk yard,they are getting profit,beside finance companies giving loans to buy unwanted vehicles.
Answers:In-situ conservation is on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. It is applied to conservation of agricultural biodiversity in agroecosystems by farmers, especially those using unconventional farming practices. The major ADVANTAGES for in situ conservation relate to the availability of technologies and the utilization of the breeds. : 1) The in situ conservation of live populations requires no advanced technology. There are optimal sampling strategies and breeding strategies, but the basic needs of an in situ programme are already available and affordable throghout the world. The farmers of every region and nation know how to manage and maintain their local strains. They already have the capability, all they require is direction. 2) In situ projects can ensure that financial commitment to the conservation of animal genetic resources involves helping to improve the livelihood of farming communities associated with the breeds targeted for conservation. Live conservation projects involve animal utilization and are net producers of food, fibre and draught power. They do not require the importation of expensive materials, skills or equipment. 3) Live conservation programmes may survive major political or environmental upheaval, wars, or climatic disasters that could eliminate frozen stores, especially those needing imported frozen nitrogen. Sufficient numbers of breeding units must be established and maintained, however, for each conserved population. 4) In situ projects enable breeds to be properly characterized and evaluated in their own and related localities. They allow for comparative trials, research and crossing experiments. 5) This method of conservation also allows populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions and endemic diseases. 6) The maintenance of live herds allows for selection and improvement of populations within the sustainable constraints. Here are some images related to in situ conservation : http://www.google.co.in/images?hl=en&q=in+situ+conservation&rlz=1R2SUNC_enIN380&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&ei=0WPKTIT9O8zIccXhvMAO&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=3&ved=0CDAQsAQwAg&biw=1148&bih=599