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A Prairie Home Companion is a live radio variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor. The show runs on Saturdays from 5 to 7 p.m. Central Time, and usually originates from the Fitzgerald Theater in Saint Paul, Minnesota, although it is frequently taken on the road. A Prairie Home Companion is known for its musical guests, especially folk and traditional musicians, tongue-in-cheek radio drama, and Keillor's storytelling segment, "News from Lake Wobegon".
It is produced by Prairie Home Productions and distributed by American Public Media, and is most often heard on public radio stations in the United States. The show has a long history, existing in a similar form as far back as 1974, and borrowing the name from a radio program in existence in 1969. It was named after the Prairie Home Cemetery in Moorhead, Minnesota, next to Concordia College.
The radio program inspired a 2006 film of the same name, directed by Robert Altman and featuring Keillor, Lily Tomlin, Meryl Streep, Lindsay Lohan, Tommy Lee Jones, Kevin Kline, John C. Reilly, and Woody Harrelson.
The earliest radio program to have this name bears little resemblance to what is currently heard on Saturday evenings. A Prairie Home Companion was originally a morning show running from 6 to 9 a.m. on Minnesota Public Radio.
After researching the Grand Ole Opry for an article, Keillor became interested in doing a variety show on the radio. On July 6, 1974, the first live broadcast of A Prairie Home Companion took place. That show was broadcast from St. Paul in the Janet Wallace Auditorium of Macalester College. Twelve audience members turned out, mostly children. The second episode featured the first performance on the show by Butch Thompson, who became house pianist. Thompson stayed with the program until 1986, and still frequently performs on the show.
In 1978, the show moved into the World Theater in St. Paul, which was renovated in 1986 and renamed the Fitzgerald Theater in 1994. This is the same location that the program uses today.
The show went off the air in 1987, and Keillor married and spent some time abroad during the following two years. For a brief time, the show was replacedâ€”both on the air and in the World Theaterâ€”by Good Evening, a live variety show designed by ex-Prairie Home andAll Things Consideredstaffers to retain the audience Keillor cultivated over the years. Many stations opted instead to continue APHC repeats in its traditional Saturday time slot.
In 1989, Keillor returned to radio with The American Radio Company of the Air (renamed Garrison Keillor's American Radio Company in its second season), broadcast originally from the Brooklyn Academy of Music. The new program was a slightly revised format, with sketches and musical guests reflecting a more New York sensibility, rather than the country and folk music predominant in APHC. Also, while Keillor still sang and delivered a regular monologue on American Radio Company, Lake Wobegon was initially downplayed, as he felt it was "cruel" to talk to a Brooklyn audience about life in a small town. During this period, Keillor revived the full APHC format only for "annual farewell performances". In the fall of 1992, Keillor returned to the World Theater with ARC for the majority of the season, and the next year, the program officially reverted to the A Prairie Home Companion name and format.
While many of the episodes originate from St. Paul, the show often travels to other cities around the U.S. and overseas for its live weekly broadcasts. Common road venues include The Town Hall in New York City, Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts, Wolf Trap in Vienna, Virginia, Ryman Auditorium in Nashville, Tennessee, the Greek Theater in Los Angeles, and the State Theater in Minneapolis. There is also a show each year at the Minnesota State Fair.
The show was originally distributed nationally by Minnesota Public Radio in association with Public Radio International. Its current distributor is Minnesota Public Radio's distribution unit, American Public Media.
Each show opens with the Spencer Williams composition "Tishomingo Blues" as the theme song, but with lyrics written especially for A Prairie Home Companion. Before 1987, the show's theme song was the paper that is printed with fine lines making up a regular grid. The lines are often used as guides for plotting mathematical functions or experimental data and drawing diagrams. It is commonly found in mathematics and engineering education settings and in laboratory notebooks.
Format and availability of graph paper
Graph paper is available either as loose leaf paper or bound in notebooks. It is becoming less common as computer software such as spreadsheets and plotting programs has supplanted many of the former uses of graph paper. Some users of graph paper now print pdf images of the grid pattern as needed rather than buying it pre-printed.
Types of graph paper
- Quad paper is a common form of graph paper with a sparse grid printed in light blue or gray and right to the edge of the paper. This is often four squares to the inch for work not needing too much detail. It is sometimes referred to as quadrille paper.
- Engineering paper is traditionally printed on light green or tan translucent paper. The grid lines are printed on the back side of each page and show through faintly to the front side. Each page has an unprinted margin. When photocopied or scanned, the grid lines typically do not show up in the resulting copy, which often gives the work a neat, uncluttered appearance. In the US and Canada, some engineering professors require student homework to be completed on engineering paper.
- GenkÅ� yÅ�shi— A type of manuscript paper used in Japan, normally printed with 400 squares in two sets of 20 lines of 10, used for compositions written inhorizontal script.
- Hexagonal— This paper shows regular hexagons instead of squares. These can be used to map geometric tiled or tesselated designs among other uses
- Isometric graph paper or 3D graph paper— This type is a triangular graph paper which uses a series of three guidelines forming a 60Â° grid of small triangles. The triangles are arranged in groups of six to make hexagons. The name suggests the use for isometric views or pseudo-three dimensional views. Among other functions, they can be used in the design of trianglepointembroidery.
- Logarithmic— This type of paper has rectangles drawn in varying widths corresponding to an logarithmic scales for semilog graphs or log-log graphs.
- Normalprobability paper — This type is another graph paper with rectangles of variable widths. It is designed so that "the graph of the normal distribution function is represented on it by a straight line".[http://eom.springer.de/P/p074910.htm]
- Polar Coordinate— This type of paper has concentric circles divided into small arcs or 'pie wedges' to allow plotting in polar coordinates.
In general, graphs showing grids are sometimes called Cartesian graphs because the square can be used to map measurements onto a Cartesian (x vs. y) coordinate system. It is also available without lines but with dots at the positions where the lines would intersect.
In virtually every chemistry classroom on the planet, there is a chart known as the periodic table of elements. At first glance, it looks like a mere series of boxes, with letters and numbers in them, arranged according to some kind of code not immediately clear to the observer. The boxes would form a rectangle, 18 across and 7 deep, but there are gaps in the rectangle, particularly along the top. To further complicate matters, two rows of boxes are shown along the bottom, separated from one another and from the rest of the table. Even when one begins to appreciate all the information contained in these boxes, the periodic table might appear to be a mere chart, rather than what it really is: one of the most sophisticated and usable means ever designed for representing complex interactions between the building blocks of matter. As a testament to its durability, the periodic tableâ€”created in 1869â€”is still in use today. Along the way, it has incorporated modifications involving subatomic properties unknown to the man who designed it, Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeleev (1834-1907). Yet Mendeleev's original model, which we will discuss shortly, was essentially sound, inasmuch as it was based on the knowledge available to chemists at the time. In 1869, the electromagnetic force fundamental to chemical interactions had only recently been identified; the modern idea of the atom was less than 70 years old; and another three decades were to elapse before scientists began uncovering the substructure of atoms that causes them to behave as they do. Despite these limitations in the knowledge available to Mendeleev, his original table was sound enough that it has never had to be discarded, but merely clarified and modified, in the years since he developed it. The rows of the periodic table of elements are called periods, and the columns are known as groups. Each box in the table represents an element by its chemical symbol, along with its atomic number and its average atomic mass in atomic mass units. Already a great deal has been said, and a number of terms need to be explained. These explanations will require the length of this essay, beginning with a little historical background, because chemists' understanding of the periodic tableâ€”and of the elements and atoms it representsâ€”has evolved considerably since 1869. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into another substance. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains all the chemical and physical properties of the element, and elements contain only one kind of atom. The scientific concepts of both elements and atoms came to us from the ancient Greeks, who had a rather erroneous notion of the element andâ€”for their time, at leastâ€”a highly advanced idea of the atom. Unfortunately, atomic theory died away in later centuries, while the mistaken notion of four "elements" (earth, air, fire, and water) survived virtually until the seventeenth century, an era that witnessed the birth of modern science. Yet the ancients did know of substances later classified as elements, even if they did not understand them as such. Among these were gold, tin, copper, silver, lead, and mercury. These, in fact, are such an old part of human history that their discoverers are unknown. The first individual credited with discovering an element was German chemist Hennig Brand (c. 1630-c. 1692), who discovered phosphorus in 1674. The work of English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle (1627-1691) greatly advanced scientific understanding of the elements. Boyle maintained that no substance was an element if it could be broken down into other substances: thus air, for instance, was not an element. Boyle's studies led to the identification of numerous elements in the years that followed, and his work influenced French chemists Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) and Joseph-Louis Proust (1754-1826), both of whom helped define an element in the modern sense. These men in turn influenced English chemist John Dalton (1766-1844), who reintroduced atomic theory to the language of science. In A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808), Dalton put forward the idea that nature is composed of tiny particles, and in so doing he adopted the Greek word atomos to describe these basic units. Drawing on Proust's law of constant composition, Dalton recognized that the structure of atoms in a particular element or compound is uniform, but maintained that compounds are made up of compound "atoms." In fact, these compound atoms are really molecules, or groups of two or more atoms bonded to one another, a distinction clarified by Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856). Dalton's and Avogadro's contemporary, Swedish chemist Jons Berzelius (1779-1848), developed a system of comparing the mass of various atoms in relation to the lightest one, hydrogen. Berzelius also introduced the system of chemical symbolsâ€”H for hydrogen, O for oxygen, and so onâ€”in use today. Thus, by the middle of the nineteenth century, scientists understood vastly more about elements and atoms than they had just a few decades before, and the need for a system of organizing elements became increasingly clear. By mid-century, a number of chemists had attempted to create just such an organizational system, and though Mendeleev's was not the first, it proved the most useful. By the time Mendeleev constructed his periodic table in 1869, there were 63 known elements. At that point, he was working as a chemistry professor at the University of St. Petersburg, where he had become acutely aware of the need for a way of classifying the elements to make their relationships more understandable to his students. He therefore assembled a set of 63 cards, one for each element, on which he wrote a number of identifying characteristics for each. Along with the element symbol, discussed below, he included the atomic mass for the atoms of each. In Mendeleev's time, atomic mass was understood simply to be the collective mass of a unit of atomsâ€”a unit developed by Avogadro, known as the moleâ€”divided by Avogadro's number, the number of atoms or molecules in a mole. With the later discovery of subatomic particles, which in turn made possible the discovery of isotopes, figures for atomic mass were clarified, as will also be discussed. In addition, Mendeleev also included figures for specific gravityâ€”the ratio between the density of an element and the density of waterâ€”as well as other known chemical characteristics of an element. Today, these items are typically no longer included on the periodic table, partly for considerations of space, but partly because chemists' much greater understanding of the properties of atoms makes it unnecessary to clutter the table with so much detail. Again, however, in Mendeleev's time there was no way of knowing about these factors. As far as chemists knew in 1869, an atom was an indivisible little pellet of matter that could not be characterized by terms any more detailed than its mass and the ways it interacted with atoms of other elements. Mendeleev therefore arranged his cards in order of atomic mass, then grouped elements that showed similar chemical properties. As Mendeleev observed, every eighth element on the chart exhibits similar characteristics, and thus, he established columns whereby element number x was placed above element number x + 8 â€”for instance, helium (2) above neon (10). The patterns he observed were so regular that for any "hole" in his table, he predicted that an element to fill that space would be discovered. Indeed, Mendeleev was so confident in the basic soundness of his organizational system that in some instances, he changed the figures for the atomic mass of certain elements because he was convinced they belonged elsewhere on the table. Later discoveries of isotopes, which in some cases affected the average atomic mass considerably, confirmed his suppositions. Likewise the undiscovered elements he named "eka-aluminum," "eka-boron," and "eka-silicon" were later identified as gallium, scandium, and germanium, respectively. Over a period of 35 years, between the discovery of the
Wall and floor tile used for interior and exterior decoration belongs to a class of ceramics known as whitewares. The production of tile dates back to ancient times and peoples, including the Egyptians, the Babylonians, and the Assyrians. For instance, the Step Pyramid for the Pharoah Djoser, built in ancient Egypt around 2600 b.c., contained colorful glazed tile. Later, ceramic tile was manufactured in virtually every major European country and in the United States. By the beginning of the twentieth century, tile was manufactured on an industrial scale. The invention of the tunnel kiln around 1910 increased the automation of tile manufacture. Today, tile manufacture is highly automated. The American National Standards Institute separates tiles into several classifications. Ceramic mosaic tile may be either porcelain or of natural clay composition of size less than 39 cm2 (6 in.2). Decorative wall tile is glazed tile with a thin body used for interior decoration of residential walls. Paver tile is glazed or unglazed porcelain or natural clay tile of size 39 cm2 (6 in.2) or more. Porcelain tile is ceramic mosaic tile or paver tile that is made by a certain method called dry pressing. Quarry tile is glazed or unglazed tile of the same size as paver tile, but made by a different forming method. Europe, Latin America, and the Far East are the largest producers of tile, with Italy the leader at 16.6 million ft.2/day as of 1989. Following Italy (at 24.6 percent of the world market) are Spain (12.6 percent), Brazil and Germany (both at 11.2 percent), and the United States (4.5 percent). The total market for floor and wall tile in 1990 according to one estimate was $2.4 billion. The United States has approximately 100 plants that manufacture ceramic tile, which shipped about 507 million ft.2 in 1990 according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. imports, by volume, accounted for approximately 60 percent of consumption in 1990, valued at around $500 million. Italy accounts for almost half of all imports, with Mexico and Spain following. U.S. exports have seen some growth, from $12 million in 1988 to about $20 million in 1990. Because the tile industry is a relatively mature market and dependent on the building industry, growth will be slow. The United States Department of Commerce estimates a three to four percent increase in tile consumption over the next five years. Another economic analysis predicts that 494 million ft.2 will be shipped in 1992, a growth of about 4 percent from the previous year. Some tile manufacturers are a bit more optimistic; an American Ceramic Society survey showed an average growth of around 36 percent per manufacturer over the next five years. The raw materials used to form tile consist of clay minerals mined from the earth's crust, natural minerals such as feldspar that are used to lower the firing temperature, and chemical additives required for the shaping process. The minerals are often refined or beneficiated near the mine before shipment to the ceramic plant. The raw materials must be pulverized and classified according to particle size. Primary crushers are used to reduce large lumps of material. Either a jaw crusher or gyratory crusher is used, which operate using a horizontal squeezing motion between steel plates or rotating motion between steel cones, respectively. Secondary crushing reduces smaller lumps to particles. Hammer or muller mills are often used. A muller mill uses steel wheels in a shallow rotating pan, while a hammer mill uses rapidly moving steel hammers to crush the material. Roller or cone type crushers can also be used. A third particle size reduction step may be necessary. Tumbling types of mills are used in combination with grinding media. One of the most common types of such mills is the ball mill, which consists of large rotating cylinders partially filled with spherical grinding media. Screens are used to separate out particles in a specific size range. They operate in a sloped position and are vibrated mechanically or electromechanically to improve material flow. Screens are classified according to mesh number, which is the number of openings per lineal inch of screen surface. The higher the mesh number, the smaller the opening size. A glaze is a glass material designed to melt onto the surface of the tile during firing, and which then adheres to the tile surface during cooling. Glazes are used to provide moisture resistance and decoration, as they can be colored or can produce special textures. Once the raw materials are processed, a number of steps take place to obtain the finished product. These steps include batching, mixing and grinding, spray-drying, forming, drying, glazing, and firing. Many of these steps are now accomplished using automated equipment. A variety of pollutants are generated during the various manufacturing steps; these emissions must be controlled to meet air control standards. Among the pollutants produced in tile manufacture are fluorine and lead compounds, which are produced during firing and glazing. Lead compounds have been significantly reduced with the recent development of no-lead or low-lead glazes. Fluorine emissions can be controlled with scrubbers, devices that basically spray the gases with water to remove harmful pollutants. They can also be controlled with dry processes, such as fabric filters coated with lime. This lime can then be recycled as a raw material for future tile. The tile industry is also developing processes to recycle wastewater and sludge produced during milling, glazing, and spray-drying. Already some plants recycle the excess powder generated during dry-pressing as well as the overspray produced during glazing. Waste glaze and rejected tile are also returned to the body preparation process for reuse. Most tile manufacturers now use statistical process control (SPC) for each step of the manufacturing process. Many also work closely with their raw material suppliers to ensure that specifications are met before the material is used. Statistical process control consists of charts that are used to monitor various processing parameters, such as particle size, milling time, drying temperature and time, compaction pressure, dimensions after pressing, density, firing temperature and time, and the like. These charts identify problems with equipment, out of spec conditions, and help to improve yields before the final product is finished. The final product must meet certain specifications regarding physical and chemical properties. These properties are determined by standard tests established by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Properties measured include mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, water absorption, dimensional stability, frost resistance, and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. More recently, the slip resistance, which can be determined by measuring the coefficient of friction, has become a concern. However, no standard has yet been established because other factors (such as proper floor design and care) can make results meaningless. In order to maintain market growth, tile manufacturers will concentrate on developing and promoting new tile products, including modular or cladding tile, larger-sized tile, slip- and abrasion-resistant tile, and tile with a polished, granite or marble finish. This is being accomplished through the development of different body formulations, new glazes, and glaze applications, and by new and improved processing equipment and techniques. Automation will continue to play an important role in an effort to increase production, lower costs, and improve quality. In addition, changes in production technology due to environmental and energy resource issues will continue. Bender, W. and F. Handle, eds. Brick and Tile Making: Procedures and Operating Practices in the Heavy Clay Industries. Bauverlag GmbH, 1982. Jones, J. T. and M. F. Berard. Ceramics: Industrial Processing and Testing. Iowa State University Press, 1972. Pellacani, G. and T. Manfredini. Engineered Materials Handbook. ASM International, 1991, pp. 925-929. Burzacchini, B. "Technical Developme
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Answers:Try to see what you can find here or may be they can assist you: http://www.worldwatch.org/
Answers:Air pollution consists of smog, respiratory illnesses, acid rain, poor visibility and general atmospheric ugliness... We have seen, by reading pollution articles in the media, that air pollution also addresses upper atmosphere issues. Things like changes in the climate map, green house effect and ozone layer depletion. We hear a lot of the controversy global warming has generated. Like the well-known greenhouse effect, a projected cause of global warming and climate change. You may have read about other atmospheric problems such as stratospheric layer ozone pollution and depletion. Also, increased ultra-violet chart radiation (UVB and C) reaches ground level and harms people and other life forms. Has the American government really done anything about it? Is it their job? Now let's look at ecology education, human effects All of these effects have been linked with the chemical contamination water takes on and changes in the composition of the air. Scientists most often associate these with anthropogenic emissions. Allergies? - Safely identify the substance(s) to which a patient is allergic. The world needs innovative ways to reduce things that result in air quality problems. Do you or your company sell air cleaning and control equipment? And have you considerable expertise now? If you need greater public exposure, you might want to know how I turned my knowledge into recognition and profit. What do active demonstrations, investigations, studies, and environmental web sites such as this one do? They amplify the commotion, pointing out the need for services like environmental consultancy for health, safety and related issues. And for governments to participate in programs such as the Kyoto Treaty. See the Solution Global Warming webpage for more on this. Want more information?
Answers:google it. EDIT: Okay,this may help. Exhaled air has a much higher percentage of CO2 compared to inhaled air; there is also a lower percentage of oxygen in exhaled air compared to inhaled air - but the difference is not so great as the body can only absorb a small amount of the oxygen which is in each lungful of air, so much of it gets breathed out again. CO2 content of the inhaled air is 0.04 %, whereas, of the exhaled air is 4 % (100 times) Humidity of the inhaled air is dependent on the geographical place. I didn't find a bar chart,but you can take help from this.
Answers:Really you should be asking your classmates for help on this, or even your teacher, but I'll help you anyway. 1. Zoology is not included in Physical Science. 2. Physics is the science that deals most with Energy and Forces. 3. Using superconductors to build computers is probably an example of technology. It could be pure science but since I'm not sure what a superconductor is I'll leave it up to you to find out :] 4. A balance is a scientific tool used to measure mass. It's basically a set of weighing scales. 5. A kilogram is an example of a SI basic unit. 6. The composition of the mixture of gases that makes up our air is best represented on a pie chart. 7. In a controlled experiment one variable is changed while all others remained fixed. 8. I'm not sure why it is no longer sufficient, but the definition of Physical Science is: any of the sciences that deal with inanimate matter or energy, as physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy, etc. 9. I would say it's because the Earth rotates around the sun in a counter-clockwise direction. This means that when looking at the Earth from any side, when the North Pole is at the top, the the sun will always pass over the west side of the Earth after. This means that the sun will always "set" over the western side of the Earth. 10. The rotation of the Earth could be classed as a scientific theory because it has not been definitively proven? I don't know so you might want to ask someone else that question. 11. The figure 465mL is correct to 3 signficsignificants and so this means that it could be anywhere from 464.5 (inclusive) up to 465.5 (exclusive). This means that the given figure is not very accurate because it still means the volume could be .4999999(recurring) more or .5 less than the figure. The accuracy refers to how close the value is to its true value. Because the precision is not adequate enough (i.e no decimal places are given) this affects how close it is to the true value and therefore the accuracy of the measurement. 12. Mass refers to how much of the object there is. It is measured in grams (g), kilograms (kg), milligrams (mg) etc. Weight refers to the amount of force acting upon the object. This would be measured in Newtons (N). Roughly speaking 1 kilogram is 10 Newtons. 13. The indepenindependentle is the variable that you purposely change. In this case it is the type of garden fertilizer. The factors that should be controlled (the control variables) are the amount of fertilizer applies to each row of radishes, the amount of soil in each row, the conditions in which the rows of radishes are kept (i.e the amount of water & sunlight given to each of them) and the amount of radishes in each row. It would also be a good idea to keep 1 row without any fertilizer as a control, to establish a base line for the results. You could measure the results by measuring the mass of the radishes before the garden fertilizer is applied, and the mass after the fertilizer is applied. Then you should take the percentage difference between the two measurements to find out how much of the original mass has been added as a result of the garden fertilizer. Hope this helps.