chemical properties of hydrogen peroxide
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A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected for its chemical properties to be investigated.
Chemical properties can be contrasted with physical properties, which can be discerned without changing the substance's structure. However, for many properties within the scope of physical chemistry, and other disciplines at the border of chemistry and physics, the distinction may be a matter of researcher's perspective. Material properties, both physical and chemical, can be viewed as supervenient; i.e., secondary to the underlying reality. Several layers of superveniency are possible.
Chemical properties can be used for building chemical classifications.
Examples of chemical properties
- Reactivity against other chemical substances
- Heat of combustion
- Enthalpy of formation
- Chemical stability in a given environment
- Preferred oxidation state(s)
- Coordination number
- Capability to undergo a certain set of transformations, for example molecular dissociation, chemical combination, redox reactions under certain physical conditions in the presence of another chemical substance
- Preferred types of chemical bonds to form, for example metallic, ionic, covalent
For example hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode given the right conditions. This is a chemical property.
Metals in general do they have chemical properties of reaction with an acid. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. This is a chemical property.
It is susceptible to heat, friction, and shock. The instability is greatly altered by impurities. It is normally fairly stable when pure. It is not easily soluble in water. It is more stable and less sensitive when wet.
Acetone peroxide was discovered in 1895 by Richard Wolffenstein. He was the first chemist to use inorganic acids as catalysts. He was also the first researcher to receive a patent for using the peroxide as an explosive compound. In 1900 Bayer and Villiger described in the same journal the first synthesis of the dimer and also described use of acids for the synthesis of both peroxides. Information about these procedures including the relative proportions of monomer, dimer, and trimer is also available in an article by Milas and GoluboviÄ‡. Other sources include crystal structure and 3d analysis in The Chemistry of Peroxides edited by Saul Patai (pp. 396â€“7), as well as the Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry by Vogel.
"Acetone peroxide" most commonly refers to the cyclictrimer TCAP (tri-cyclic acetone peroxide, or tri-cyclo, C9H18O6) obtained by a reaction between hydrogen peroxide and acetone in an acid-catalyzednucleophilic addition. The dimer (C6H12O4) and open monomer are also formed, but under proper conditions the cyclic trimer is the primary product. A tetrameric form was also described. In mildly acidic or neutral conditions, the reaction is much slower and produces more monomeric organic peroxide than the reaction with a strong acid catalyst. Due to significant strain of the chemical bonds in the dimer and especially the monomer, they are even more unstable than the trimer.
At room temperature, the trimeric form slowly sublimes, reforming as larger crystals of the same peroxide.
Acetone peroxide is notable as a high explosive not containing nitrogen. This is one reason why it has become popular with terrorists, as it can pass through scanners designed to detect nitrogenous explosives.
TCAP generally burns when ignited, unconfined, in quantities less than about 2 grams. More than 2 grams will usually detonate when ignited; smaller quantities might detonate when even slightly confined. Completely dry TCAP is much more prone to detonation than the fresh product still wetted with water or acetone. The oxidation that occurs when burning is:
- 2 C|9|H|18|O|6 + 21 O|2 â†’ 18 H|2|O + 18 CO|2
Theoretical examination of the explosive decomposition of TCAP, in contrast, predicts in "formation of acetone and ozone as the main decomposition products and not the intuitively expected oxidation products." This result is in good agreement with the results of 60 years of the study of controlled decompositions in various organic peroxides. It is the rapid creation of gas from a solid that creates the explosion. Very little heat is created by the explosive decomposition of TCAP. Recent research describes TCAP decomposition as an entropic explosion.
The extreme shock, heat, and friction sensitivity are due to the instability of the molecule. Big crystals, found in older mixtures, are more dangerous, as they are easier to shatterâ€”and initiateâ€”than small ones.
Due to the cost and ease with which the precursors can be obtained, acetone peroxide can be manufactured by those without the resources needed to manufacture or buy more sophisticated explosives. When the reaction is carried out without proper equipment the risk of an accident is significant. Simply mixing sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and acetone can create the substance. The mixture starts as a liquid that quickly crystallizes into a powder.
There is a common myth that the only "safe" acetone peroxide is the trimer, made at low temperatures:
"The mixture must be kept below 10 degrees Celsius. If the crystals form at this temperature, it forms the isomer called tricycloacetone peroxide, which is relatively stable and safe to handle. If the crystals form above this temperature, the dimeric form, called dicycloacetone peroxide. This isomer is much more unstable, and could go off at the touch, making it not safe enough to be considered a practical explosive. As long as the temperature is kept below 10 degrees Celsius, then there is little to worry about."
The trimer is the more stable form, but not much more so than the dimer. All forms of acetone peroxide are sensitive to initiation. Organic peroxides are sensitive, dangerous explosives; due to their sensitivity they are rarely used by well funded militaries. Even for those who synthesize explosives as a hobby there are far safer explosives with syntheses nearly as simple as that of acetone peroxide. It is commonly combined with nitrocellulose by dissolving the nitrocellulose in acetone and then mixing
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Answers:Physical: almost colorless, less volatile than water, denser than water, more viscous than water, miscible in water. mp: -.41 deg C bp: 150.2 deg C density: 1.6434 g/cm3 (solid at -4.5 C) 1.4425 at 25C Viscosity: 1.245 centipoise (20C) vapor pressure (@ 25C) 1.9mmHg dielectric constant: (25C) 70.7 Electric conductivity (25C) 5.1E-8 ohm^-1 cm^-1 standard heat of formation -187.6 kJ/mol standard gibbs free energy of formation: -118.0 kJ/mol Chemical: spontaneously disproportionates decomposition strongly catalyzed by metal surfaces (Platinum, Silver) can act as oxidizing or reducing agent (in both acidic and basic solutions) evolves O2 when a reducing agent can undergo proton acid/base reactions to form peroxonium salts, hydroperoxides, and peroxides somewhat stronger acid than water (pKa=11.65) much weaker base than water (by a a 10^6 factor) used in the production of epoxides, propylene oxide, and caprolactones, hydroquinone, and many pharmaceuticals and food products environmental applications include pollution treatment by oxidizing cyanides and sulfides, and restoring aerobic conditions to sewage waters. replaces chlorine in industrial bleach because H2O and O2 decomp. products That should be a start.
Answers:It is obtained by a reaction between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and propan-2-one ( acetone) in an acid catalyzed nucleophilic reaction
Answers:Hey..Cassie.... I am taking my AS-Levels this year, so, I hope my answer help you a bit.... Firstly, you got to know about the : Basic Information Name: Aluminum Symbol: Al Atomic Number: 13 Atomic Mass: 26.981539 amu Melting Point: 660.37 C (933.52 K, 1220.666 F) Boiling Point: 2467.0 C (2740.15 K, 4472.6 F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 13 Number of Neutrons: 14 Classification: Other Metals Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 2.702 g/cm3 Color: Silver British Spelling: Aluminium IUPAC Spelling: Aluminium Properties of Aluminium Aluminium has the chemical symbol Al, atomic number 13, and atomic weight 26.98. The isotope with mass number 27 is the only stable isotope. It is a soft, light, gray metal that resists corrosion when pure in spite of its chemical activity because of a thin surface layer of oxide. It is nonmagnetic and nonsparking. Its density is 2.6989 g/cm3, melting point 669.7 C and boiling point 1800 C. Its electrical resistivity is 2.824 -cm at 20 C, with temperature coefficient 0.0039 C-1, the same as copper's. Its thermal conductivity is 2.37 W/cm-K at 300K, and the linear coefficient of expansion is 23.86 x 10-6 C-1. The specific heat is 0.2259 cal/g-K, and the heat of fusion is 93 cal/g. The first ionization potential is 5.96V, second 18.74V and third 28.31V. Its electrode potential is 1.67V positive with respect to hydrogen. When near its melting point, it becomes "hot short" and crumbles easily. As a pure metal, it is quite soft, and must be strengthened by alloying with Cu, Mg, Si or Mn before it can be used structurally. Aluminium bronze is 90 Cu, 10 Al, a strong, golden-yellow alloy with excellent physical properties. The Young's modulus of pure aluminium is 10 x 106 psi, the shear modulus 3.8 x 106 psi, Poisson's ratio 0.33, and the ultimate tensile strength 10,000 psi, with 60% elongation. Pure aluminium is very ductile and malleable, and unsuitable as a structural material. Its hardness is 15 Brinell (500 kg, 10 mm). The useful wrought alloys contain 1-7% magnesium and 1% manganese. Its crystal form is face-centered cubic, with lattice constant a = 0.404 nm, and nearest-neighbor spacing of 0.286 nm. The familiar strong aluminium alloy Duralumin should really be D ralumin, since it was originally the product of the D rener Metallwerke in Germany. D ren is about halfway between K ln and Aachen in northwestern Germany. Dr Alfred Wilm was testing aluminium alloys there about 1909, and was surprised that an alloy 96 Al, 3.5 Cu, 0.5 Mg, which was not too impressive on a first test, strengthened greatly with a few day's rest after casting. What was happening was that all the Cu was in solution at 500 C, but at room temperature the solid could hold only 0.5% in solid solution. The hard intermetallic CuAl2 was forming slowly, making hard bits that would hinder the propagation of slip dislocations. This "age hardening" was the start of the general process of precipitation hardening that has been very important in strong alloys. The alloy was used in Zeppelins, and now is a major component of most aircraft, in the form of Alclad, in which the Duralumin is given a sheathing of pure aluminium to make it corrosion-resistant. Liquid aluminium easily absorbs gases from the air, and these gases are expelled on solidification, causing flaws in castings. Casting alloys include silicon, and perhaps a little copper or nickel to help to avoid this. A eutectic is formed with aluminium at 11% silicon. Also, large crystals may be a problem if the aluminium is poured while too hot. The shrinkage on solidification is 0.2031 inches per foot for pure aluminium, 0.156 inches per foot for casting alloys. Chemistry of Aluminium The electron configuration of aluminium is 1s22s22p63s23p. The outer three electrons occupy three s2p hybrid orbitals that point in orthogonal directions. These electrons easily form covalent bonds, as in anhydrous AlCl3. This compound easily sublimates, showing that it is not ionic, and is partially hydrolyzed by water to release HCl gas. It cannot be formed by heating the hydrated form to drive off water. This only produces the oxide and HCl gas. It is now made commercially by heating aluminum oxide with carbon and chlorine. It is used in the refining of motor oil, and as a catalyst. Hydrated aluminium chloride is used as a personal deodorant. The acid environment it creates is unpleasant for microbes and mild enough to be non-irritating. The spectroscopic ground state is 3s23p2 3P. The resonance line is at 396.15 nm, so the aluminium atom is not excited in the flame, and gives it no color. When the atom is excited, most of the lines are in the red or infrared. Aluminium is in column IIIA of the periodic table, which includes boron, aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium. Aluminium is the only common element in the group, and is considerably different from the others in physical and chemical properties. Boron is an acidic nonmetal, while gallium, indium and thallium are typical basic metals. Aluminium should displace hydrogen from water because of its positive oxidation potential, but does not normally do so because of the protection by a surface layer of oxide. This oxide has the same density as the metallic aluminium, so it does not crack or wrinkle when it is formed, a lucky thing. A little HCl or NaOH that dissolves the oxide will permit the evolution of hydrogen. Aluminium pots and pans should not be used with acidic or strongly alkaline foods, that will dissolve the protective layer and allow the metal to be attacked. Aluminium is attacked by hydrochloric acid, but not by oxidizing acids like nitric. Aluminium tank cars are even used to transport nitric acid. If aluminium is amalgamated with mercury, the protective oxide layer is removed, the metal becomes very reactive, and will displace hydrogen from water. It can be used for handling cold nitric acid, but dissolves readily in alkalis to form aluminates, an example of the amphoteric behavior of aluminium. Formation of the oxide also prevents aluminium from being soldered with ordinary Sn-Pb solder, since the solder will not wet it. Sn-Zn solders can be used with aluminium. A suitable alloy is 85 Sn, 15 Zn, 5 Al. 60 Zn, 40 Cd has better corrosion resistance, but is harder to melt. The solder itself serves as a flux. With a suitable flux to protect the metal, aluminium can be welded. Aluminium was first isolated by Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) in 1824 by reducing it from its oxide with potassium amalgam. The reaction is AlCl3 + 3K 3KCl + Al. Two years later, W hler made the metal the same way. For some reason, W hler is usually considered the discoverer and got most of the fame. This Oersted is the same who discovered the magnetic effect of the electric current in 1820. In the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, the article on Oersted does not mention his work with aluminium. Refractory oxides such as alumina, silica or magnesia, were considered elements earlier, when all attempts to decompose them had failed. Only electrolysis made the decomposition possible, either directly or through the production of reactive metals like sodium and potassium. The thermite reaction, discovered by Goldschmidt, is also a displacement reaction, but here aluminium reduces iron. The reaction is Fe2O3 + 2Al 2Fe + Al2O3, which liberates a good deal of heat. The liquid metal produced is at about 2300 C, which is very hot. Powdered aluminium and rust in the approximate ratio of 1:3 are packed in a refractory crucible with a magnesium ribbon, or a powder of magnesium and barium peroxide, to ignite it. Either the red or black iron oxide can be used, giving "red Thermit" or "black Thermit." A trade name for the powder is Thermit. The vigorous reaction makes liquid iron or steel, which flows out of a hole in the bottom of the crucible into the mold and can be used for welding. The stock to be welded is usually preheated with a gas flame playing through the mold. The metal produced is about half the weight of the original mixture. This reaction is also called aluminothermic, and
Answers:woo... you are right to be leary about mixing chemicals, mixing ammonia and bleach is not even quarter (or less) as bad as mixing acetone and hydrogen peroxide. Mixing acetone and hydrogen peroxide will give you acetone peroxide, which is an organic peroxide and a primary high explosive. It's even worse if the concentration of peroxide is high, the reaction will be very vigorous. Save your HANDS!