Chemical and Physical Properties of Sugar

Carbohydrates or sugar molecules are well known biological molecules which act as major source of energy in living bodies. They are widely distributed in plants and animals. 
Many sugar molecules important structural and metabolic roles in living systems. Glucose one of the most common monosaccharide is formed during photosynthesis process in plants. 

Carbon dioxide and water act as reactant in this chemical change and leads to the formation of oxygen gas with sugar molecules. 
The reaction occurs in the presence of sun light and chlorophyll (a pigment in plant’s leaves). 
Glucose is used in the formation of cellulose and also stored in the form of starch in plant tissues. 
Animals can also synthesised carbohydrates and also use plant sources to get it. 
They store the excess of sugar in the form of glycogen molecules.  Most of the sugar molecules convert into glucose and absorbed by bloodstream. The conversion of sugar takes place in liver. It is major metabolic fuel of mammals and also acts as universal fuel of the fetus. It also involves in the synthesis of other sugar molecules during biological synthesis in living bodies. It stores in body in the different forms such as ribose, deoxy-ribose, galactose, and other forms. 
The improper metabolism of sugar molecules can result different diseases such as diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, and lactose intolerance. Some of oligosaccharides can combine with proteins at all cell membranes and act as receptors which are involved in molecular recognition. 
They also involve in the synthesis of antibodies and blood clotting factors. Some of sugar derivatives like heparin sulphate which is a glycoprotein take part in the adhesion of one neuron to the other. 
Almost all sugar molecules are soluble in water due to tendency of the formation of H-bonding with water. They are bulky molecules alcoholic and carbonyl functional group.  Two monomer units are associated with each other to form di-saccharide units. 
Here monomer units are bonded together with glycosidic linkage with a condensation reaction. Glucose is a simplest sugar which shows unique physical and chemical properties. It involves in the formation of glycosides in which a sugar molecule is attached with a non-sugar moiety. 
Here sugar part is known as glycone and the non-sugar part is called as aglycone. 

The hydroxyl group of anomeric carbon of sugar is bonded with the hydroxyl group of non sugars such as Amygdalin. Glucose can also form Osazone with phenylhydrazine. 

This is a yellowish, crystalline compound, which is formed by the sugar molecules. These sugar molecules must contain a free carbonyl group (-CHO or >C=O). One molecule of glucose can react with three molecules of phenyl hydrazine to form glucosazone. 
On the contrary; sucrose cannot form same product due to absence of free carbonyl group in the molecule. 

The reduction of aldose or ketose sugar leads to the formation of poly-hydroxy alcohols such as reduction of glucose results the formation of sorbitol while mannose forms mannitol and galactose reduces to dulcitol. Furctose reduces in to sorbitol and mannitol. 
The oxidation of sugar molecules leads to the formation of gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, or glucaric acid. 
The final product depends upon the presence of oxidising agent.

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From Wikipedia

Chemical property

A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected for its chemical properties to be investigated.

Chemical properties can be contrasted with physical properties, which can be discerned without changing the substance's structure. However, for many properties within the scope of physical chemistry, and other disciplines at the border of chemistry and physics, the distinction may be a matter of researcher's perspective. Material properties, both physical and chemical, can be viewed as supervenient; i.e., secondary to the underlying reality. Several layers of superveniency are possible.

Chemical properties can be used for building chemical classifications.

Examples of chemical properties

For example hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode given the right conditions. This is a chemical property.

Metals in general do they have chemical properties of reaction with an acid. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. This is a chemical property.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:What properties do the share? What properties could you use to distinguish between salt and sugar?

Answers:How about physical property of being a solid. How about white. How about sugar will burn ( a chemical property). Both disolve in water ( a physical property). Salt will not melt but sugar will ( a physical change ). Yeast will act on sugar to from carbon dioxide and ethonal ( a chemical change and booze to boot). Sugar is sweet and salt is not ( physicla property. Salt is an ionic substance and sugar is not, it is a covalent bonded substance. This is a chemical property. Ionic means the molecules of salt are held together by and ionic bond, they give or take electrons. Covalent bonds share electrons.


Answers:Physical: color, weight/mass. Chemical: sucrose is water-soluble and copper isn't, sucrose shatters when struck and copper is malleable, which is the result of bonding types.

Question:Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property. a.Iron and oxygen from rust. b.Iron is more dense than aluminum. c.Magnesium burns brightly when ignited. d.Oil and water do not mix. e.Mercury melts at -39 C.

Answers:I would say (a) and (c) are chemical properties, as they both represent chemical changes the materials are undergoing. (b), (d), and (e) would be physical properties.

Question:Tell which the words are physical property of chemical property 1. Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. 2. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce a salt, water and heat 3. A pellet of sodium is sliced in two. 4. Water is heated and changed to steam. 5. Potassium chlorate decomposes to potasslum chloride and oxygen gas 6. Iron rusts. 7. Ice melts. 8. Acid on limestone produces carbon dioxide gas. 9. Milk sours 10. Wood rots

Answers:1 chemical 2 chemical 3 physical 4 physical 5 chemical 6 chemical 7. physical 8. chemical 9. chemical 10 chemical

From Youtube

Physical and Chemical Properties :Papapodcasts presents: Physical and Chemical Properties