carnegie learning answers
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- Engage: in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established.
- Explore: in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation.
- Explain: in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding.
- Extend: in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic.
- Evaluate: in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its own set phase.
Methods of implementing the "learning cycle"
- Engage: Use of anecdotes that relate to subject.
- Explore: Allow discussion that students discover answers instead of just hearing answers.
- Explain: Students are required to reword what they have learned to demonstrate their knowledge.
- Extend: Take the principles taught and have students apply the knowledge in another area or facet of the subject.
- Evaluate: Observe and correct each student individually to perfect their "working" knowledge of the subject.
Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. It is also referred to as tactile learning. People with a kinaesthetic learning style are also commonly known as do-ers.
The Fleming's VARK model (sometimes VAK), one of the most common and widely used categorizations of the various types of learning styles, categorized the various types of learning styles as follows: visual learners, auditory learners, reading/writing-preference learners, and kinaesthetic learners or tactile learners
According to proponents of the learning styles theory, students who have a predominantly kinesthetic learning style are thought to be natural discovery learners: they have realizations through doing, as opposed to having thought first before initiating action. They may struggle to learn by reading or listening.
When revising it helps for the student to move around as this increases the students understanding with learners generally getting better marks in exams when they use that style. The kinesthetic learner usually does well in things such as chemistry experiments, sporting activities, art and acting. They also may listen to music while learning or studying. It is common for kinesthetic learners to focus on two different things at the same time. They will remember things by going back in their minds to what their body was doing. They also have very high hand-eye coordination and very quick receptors.
Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the learner using their body in order to express a thought, an idea or an understanding of a particular concept (which could be related to any field).
People with dominant kinesthetic and tactile learning style are commonly known as do-ers. In an elementary classroom setting, these students may stand out because of their constant need to move; high levels of energy which may cause them to be agitated, restless and/or impatient. Kinesthetic learners' short- and long-term memory is strengthened by their use of their own body's movements.
Rita Dunn says that kinaesthetic learning style and tactile learning are the same learning style.
Galeet BenZion says that kinaesthetic and tactile learning are separate learning styles with different characteristics. Specifically, she defined kinaesthetic learning as the process that results in new knowledge or understanding given the involvement of the learner's own body movement. This movement is created for the purpose of establishing knew or extending existing knowledge. Kinaesthetic learning at its best, BenZion found, is established when the learner uses language (their own words) in order to define, explain, resolve and sort-out the way in which his or her own body's movement reflect the concept explored. An example would be a student using movement to find out the sum of 1/2 plus 3/4th via movement, then explain how the motions in space reflect the mathematical process leading to the correct answer.
Kinesthetic learners make up about 15% of the population. Many people mistake themselves for kinaesthetic/tactile learners because they have not used the full variety of learning options, which means they cannot find the right learning state for them.
Lack of evidence
Although learning styles have "enormous popularity" among educators in some countries, and both children and adults express personal preferences, there is no evidence that identifying a student's learning style produces better outcomes, and there is significant evidence that the widespread "meshing hypothesis" (that a student will learn best if taught in a method deemed appropriate for the student's learning style) is invalid. Well-designed studies "flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis".
Proponents say that the evidence related to kinaesthetic learners benefiting from specialized instruction or targeted materials appears mixed at best, because the diagnosis of kinaesthetic and tactile learning is coupled together, rather than in isolation, and because teachers are likely to misdiagnose students' learning styles.
Some studies also show that mixed modality presentations, for instance using both auditory and visual techniques, improve results for subjects across the board. Instruction that stimulates more than the auditory learning style, namely the kinaesthetic learning style is more likely to enhance the learning of a heterogeneous student population.
Kinaesthetic intelligence was originally coupled along with tactile abilities and was defined and discussed in Howard Gardner's Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In it, Gardner describes activities such as dancing and conducting surgery as ones that would require an advanced kinaesthetic intelligence, i.e., the use of the body to generally create something new or do something.
Margaret H'Doubler wrote and spoke about kinaesthetic learning in the 1940s. She defined kinaesthetic learning as the human's body's ability to express itself through movement and dance.
Informal learning is semi-structured and occurs in a variety of places, such as learning at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes language acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, as well as in youth programs and at community centers.
In the context of corporate training and education, the term informal learning is widely used to describe the many forms of learning that takes place independently from instructor-led programs: books, self-study programs, performance support materials and systems, coaching, communities of practice, and expert directories.
Informal learning can be characterized as follows:
- It often takes place outside educational establishments standing out from normal life and professional practice;
- It does not necessarily follow a specified curriculum and is not often professionally organized but rather originates accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements;
- It is not necessarily planned pedagogically conscious, systematically according to subjects, test and qualification-oriented, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-related, and related to situationmanagement and fitness for life;
- It is experienced directly in its "natural" function of everyday life.
In international discussions, the concept of informal learning, already used by John Dewey at an early stage and later on by Malcolm Knowles, experienced a renaissance, especially in the context of development policy. At first, informal learning was only delimited from formal school learning and nonformal learning in courses (Coombs/Achmed 1974). Marsick and Watkins take up this approach and go one step further in their definition. They, too, begin with the organizational form of learning and call those learning processes informal which are non-formal or not formally organized and are not financed by institutions (Watkins/Marsick, p. 12 et sec.). An example for a wider approach is Livingstone's definition which is oriented towards autodidactic and self-directed learning and places special emphasis on the self-definition of the learning process by the learner (Livingstone 1999, p. 68 et seq.).
Merriam and others (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon. He proposes three forms: self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization, or tacit learning. These differ among themselves in terms of intentionality and awareness at the time of the learning experience. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and conscious; incidental learning, which Marsick and Watkins (1990) describe as an accidental by-product of doing something else, is unintentional but after the experience she or he becomes aware that some learning has taken place; and finally, socialization or tacit learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we can become aware of this learning later through 'retrospective recognition') (Marsick & Watkins, 1990, p. 6)" (p. 36).
Formal and nonformal education
To fully understand informal learning it is useful to define the terms "formal" and "non-formal" education. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007), state: "Formal education is highly institutionalized, bureaucratic, curriculum driven, and formally recognized with grades, diplomas, or certificates" (p. 29). Merriam and others (2007), also state: "The term non-formal has been used most often to describe organized learning outside of the formal education system. These offerings tend to be short-term, voluntary, and have few if any prerequisites. However they typically have a curriculum and often a facilitator" (p. 30).Non-formal learning can also include learning in the formal arena when concepts are adapted to the unique needs of individual students (Burlin, 2009).
Research and data
Merriam and others (2007) state: "studies of informal learning, especially those asking about adults' self-directed learning projects, reveal that upwards of 90 percent of adults are engaged in hundreds of hours of informal learning. It has also been estimated that the great majority (upwards of 70 percent) of learning in the workplace is informal (Kim, Collins, Hagedorn, Williamson, & Chapman, 2004), although billions of dollars each year are spent by business and industry on formal training programs" (p. 35â€“36). vb
Informal learning experiences
Informal knowledge is information that has not been externalized or captured and exists only inside someone's head. To get at the knowledge, you must locate and talk to that person. Examples of such informal knowledge transfer include instant messaging, a spontaneous meeting on the Internet, a phone call to someone who has information you need, a live one-time-only sales meeting introducing a new product, a chat-room in real time, a chance meeting by the water cooler, a scheduled Web-based meeting with a real-time agenda, a tech walking you through a repair process, or a meeting with your assigned mentor or manager.
Experience indicates that almost all real learning for performance is informal (The Institute for Research on Learning, 2000, Menlo Park), and the people from whom we learn informally are usually present in real time. We all need that kind of access to an expert who can answer our questions and with whom we can play with the learning, practice, make mistakes, and practice some more. It
Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is a scientific discipline that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases. A learner can take advantage of examples (data) to capture characteristics of interest of their unknown underlying probability distribution. Data can be seen as examples that illustrate relations between observed variables. A major focus of machine learning research is to automatically learn to recognize complex patterns and make intelligent decisions based on data; the difficulty lies in the fact that the set of all possible behaviors given all possible inputs is too large to be covered by the set of observed examples (training data). Hence the learner must generalize from the given examples, so as to be able to produce a useful output in new cases. Machine learning, like all subjects in artificial intelligence, requires cross-disciplinary proficiency in several areas, such as probability theory, statistics, pattern recognition, cognitive science, data mining, adaptive control, computational neuroscience and theoretical computer science.
A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.
The core objective of a learner is to generalize from its experience. The training examples from its experience come from some generally unknown probability distribution and the learner has to extract from them something more general, something about that distribution, that allows it to produce useful answers in new cases.
Some machine learning systems attempt to eliminate the need for human intuition in data analysis, while others adopt a collaborative approach between human and machine. Human intuition cannot, however, be entirely eliminated, since the system's designer must specify how the data is to be represented and what mechanisms will be used to search for a characterization of the data.
- Supervised learninggenerates a function that maps inputs to desired outputs. For example, in aclassification problem, the learner approximates a function mapping a vector into classes by looking at input-output examples of the function.
- Unsupervised learningmodels a set of inputs, like clustering.
- Semi-supervised learningcombines both labeled and unlabeled examples to generate an appropriate function or classifier.
- Reinforcement learninglearns how to act given an observation of the world. Every action has some impact in the environment, and the environment provides feedback in the form of rewards that guides the learning algorithm.
- Transductiontries to predict new outputs based on training inputs, training outputs, and test inputs.
- Learning to learnlearns its owninductive bias based on previous experience.
The computational analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer science known as computational learning theory. Because training sets are finite and the future is uncertain, learning theory usually does not yield absolute guarantees of the performance of algorithms. Instead, probabilistic bounds on the performance are quite common.
In addition to performance bounds, computational learning theorists study the time complexity and feasibility of learning. In computational learning theory, a computation is considered feasible if it can be done in polynomial time. There are two kinds of time complexity results. Positive results show that a certain class of functions can be learned in polynomial time. Negative results show that certain classes cannot be learned in polynomial time.
There are many similarities between machine learning theory and statistics, although they use different terms.
Decision tree learning
Association rule learning
Association rule learning is a method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases.
Artificial neural networks
An artificial neural network (ANN), usually called "neural network" (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model that tries to simulate the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a
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Answers:(72x - 50)(6x + 5) or (36x - 25)(12x + 10) There are two answers because there is a 2 that can be factored out of all the terms of the original expression before you do anything else. Another way of writing the same expression: 2(36x - 25)(6x + 5)
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Answers:It's called levelling. They feel inferior to you Antoni, and they can not raise themselves to your level. Therefore they try to lower you to their level. It says a lot about them and despite what you may think, it also says a lot about you and some of the others on here. You are a threat, above the norm. As long as you are those things, you will have inferiorly talented people trying to cut your legs out from under you. Please don't give them credibility by allowing yourself to be upset about it. Take it as a compliment mon ami, and smile. The further you progress in your field, the more you realise that it is the mediocrity that are the difficult people. The high achievers are usually warm responsive and very giving people. I still get attacked regularly, usually by other artists I know that aren't selling. Yes the pain is there, but I now recognise it for what it is.. part and parcel of success my friend.
Answers:Your question is a good one for sure, but probably requires much more than most of us usually do in one answer. Here is part of it and should get you started ... "The Silent Way is the name of a method of language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno. The Silent Way views learning as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is a principal actor rather than a bench-bound listener. The main features could be stated as follows: 1) Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than re members and repeats what is to be learned. 2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. 3) Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned." I like this approach to learning, and used it a great deal. It supports the statement, "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn or show me and I understand." The Silent Way approach gets children involved in their own learning. When children are actively involved they learn. You might want to research Jerome Bruner for more information. In terms of discussing application of this method in the classroom, you could easily incorporate Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theories, which might enhance your assignment. Best of luck with your work.