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From Wikipedia

Learning cycle

The learning cycle is a research-supported method for education, particularly in science. The learning cycle has five overlapping phases:

  1. Engage: in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established.
  2. Explore: in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation.
  3. Explain: in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding.
  4. Extend: in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic.
  5. Evaluate: in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its own set phase.

Methods of implementing the "learning cycle"

  1. Engage: Use of anecdotes that relate to subject.
  2. Explore: Allow discussion that students discover answers instead of just hearing answers.
  3. Explain: Students are required to reword what they have learned to demonstrate their knowledge.
  4. Extend: Take the principles taught and have students apply the knowledge in another area or facet of the subject.
  5. Evaluate: Observe and correct each student individually to perfect their "working" knowledge of the subject.

Kinesthetic learning

Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. It is also referred to as tactile learning. People with a kinaesthetic learning style are also commonly known as do-ers.

The Fleming's VARK model (sometimes VAK), one of the most common and widely used categorizations of the various types of learning styles, categorized the various types of learning styles as follows: visual learners, auditory learners, reading/writing-preference learners, and kinaesthetic learners or tactile learners

Characteristics

According to proponents of the learning styles theory, students who have a predominantly kinesthetic learning style are thought to be natural discovery learners: they have realizations through doing, as opposed to having thought first before initiating action. They may struggle to learn by reading or listening.

When revising it helps for the student to move around as this increases the students understanding with learners generally getting better marks in exams when they use that style. The kinesthetic learner usually does well in things such as chemistry experiments, sporting activities, art and acting. They also may listen to music while learning or studying. It is common for kinesthetic learners to focus on two different things at the same time. They will remember things by going back in their minds to what their body was doing. They also have very high hand-eye coordination and very quick receptors.

Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the learner using their body in order to express a thought, an idea or an understanding of a particular concept (which could be related to any field).

People with dominant kinesthetic and tactile learning style are commonly known as do-ers. In an elementary classroom setting, these students may stand out because of their constant need to move; high levels of energy which may cause them to be agitated, restless and/or impatient. Kinesthetic learners' short- and long-term memory is strengthened by their use of their own body's movements.

Classification

Rita Dunn says that kinaesthetic learning style and tactile learning are the same learning style.

Galeet BenZion says that kinaesthetic and tactile learning are separate learning styles with different characteristics. Specifically, she defined kinaesthetic learning as the process that results in new knowledge or understanding given the involvement of the learner's own body movement. This movement is created for the purpose of establishing knew or extending existing knowledge. Kinaesthetic learning at its best, BenZion found, is established when the learner uses language (their own words) in order to define, explain, resolve and sort-out the way in which his or her own body's movement reflect the concept explored. An example would be a student using movement to find out the sum of 1/2 plus 3/4th via movement, then explain how the motions in space reflect the mathematical process leading to the correct answer.

Prevalence

Kinesthetic learners make up about 15% of the population. Many people mistake themselves for kinaesthetic/tactile learners because they have not used the full variety of learning options, which means they cannot find the right learning state for them.

Lack of evidence

Although learning styles have "enormous popularity" among educators in some countries, and both children and adults express personal preferences, there is no evidence that identifying a student's learning style produces better outcomes, and there is significant evidence that the widespread "meshing hypothesis" (that a student will learn best if taught in a method deemed appropriate for the student's learning style) is invalid. Well-designed studies "flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis".

Proponents say that the evidence related to kinaesthetic learners benefiting from specialized instruction or targeted materials appears mixed at best, because the diagnosis of kinaesthetic and tactile learning is coupled together, rather than in isolation, and because teachers are likely to misdiagnose students' learning styles.

Some studies also show that mixed modality presentations, for instance using both auditory and visual techniques, improve results for subjects across the board. Instruction that stimulates more than the auditory learning style, namely the kinaesthetic learning style is more likely to enhance the learning of a heterogeneous student population.

History

Kinaesthetic intelligence was originally coupled along with tactile abilities and was defined and discussed in Howard Gardner's Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In it, Gardner describes activities such as dancing and conducting surgery as ones that would require an advanced kinaesthetic intelligence, i.e., the use of the body to generally create something new or do something.

Margaret H'Doubler wrote and spoke about kinaesthetic learning in the 1940s. She defined kinaesthetic learning as the human's body's ability to express itself through movement and dance.


Informal learning

Informal learning is semi-structured and occurs in a variety of places, such as learning at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes language acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, as well as in youth programs and at community centers.

In the context of corporate training and education, the term informal learning is widely used to describe the many forms of learning that takes place independently from instructor-led programs: books, self-study programs, performance support materials and systems, coaching, communities of practice, and expert directories.

Characterizations

Informal learning can be characterized as follows:

  • It often takes place outside educational establishments standing out from normal life and professional practice;
  • It does not necessarily follow a specified curriculum and is not often professionally organized but rather originates accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements;
  • It is not necessarily planned pedagogically conscious, systematically according to subjects, test and qualification-oriented, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-related, and related to situationmanagement and fitness for life;
  • It is experienced directly in its "natural" function of everyday life.

History

In international discussions, the concept of informal learning, already used by John Dewey at an early stage and later on by Malcolm Knowles, experienced a renaissance, especially in the context of development policy. At first, informal learning was only delimited from formal school learning and nonformal learning in courses (Coombs/Achmed 1974). Marsick and Watkins take up this approach and go one step further in their definition. They, too, begin with the organizational form of learning and call those learning processes informal which are non-formal or not formally organized and are not financed by institutions (Watkins/Marsick, p. 12 et sec.). An example for a wider approach is Livingstone's definition which is oriented towards autodidactic and self-directed learning and places special emphasis on the self-definition of the learning process by the learner (Livingstone 1999, p. 68 et seq.).

Another perspective

Merriam and others (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon. He proposes three forms: self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization, or tacit learning. These differ among themselves in terms of intentionality and awareness at the time of the learning experience. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and conscious; incidental learning, which Marsick and Watkins (1990) describe as an accidental by-product of doing something else, is unintentional but after the experience she or he becomes aware that some learning has taken place; and finally, socialization or tacit learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we can become aware of this learning later through 'retrospective recognition') (Marsick & Watkins, 1990, p. 6)" (p. 36).

Formal and nonformal education

To fully understand informal learning it is useful to define the terms "formal" and "non-formal" education. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007), state: "Formal education is highly institutionalized, bureaucratic, curriculum driven, and formally recognized with grades, diplomas, or certificates" (p. 29). Merriam and others (2007), also state: "The term non-formal has been used most often to describe organized learning outside of the formal education system. These offerings tend to be short-term, voluntary, and have few if any prerequisites. However they typically have a curriculum and often a facilitator" (p. 30).Non-formal learning can also include learning in the formal arena when concepts are adapted to the unique needs of individual students (Burlin, 2009).

Research and data

Merriam and others (2007) state: "studies of informal learning, especially those asking about adults' self-directed learning projects, reveal that upwards of 90 percent of adults are engaged in hundreds of hours of informal learning. It has also been estimated that the great majority (upwards of 70 percent) of learning in the workplace is informal (Kim, Collins, Hagedorn, Williamson, & Chapman, 2004), although billions of dollars each year are spent by business and industry on formal training programs" (p. 35–36). vb

Informal learning experiences

Informal knowledge is information that has not been externalized or captured and exists only inside someone's head. To get at the knowledge, you must locate and talk to that person. Examples of such informal knowledge transfer include instant messaging, a spontaneous meeting on the Internet, a phone call to someone who has information you need, a live one-time-only sales meeting introducing a new product, a chat-room in real time, a chance meeting by the water cooler, a scheduled Web-based meeting with a real-time agenda, a tech walking you through a repair process, or a meeting with your assigned mentor or manager.

Experience indicates that almost all real learning for performance is informal (The Institute for Research on Learning, 2000, Menlo Park), and the people from whom we learn informally are usually present in real time. We all need that kind of access to an expert who can answer our questions and with whom we can play with the learning, practice, make mistakes, and practice some more. It

Machine learning

Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is a scientific discipline that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases. A learner can take advantage of examples (data) to capture characteristics of interest of their unknown underlying probability distribution. Data can be seen as examples that illustrate relations between observed variables. A major focus of machine learning research is to automatically learn to recognize complex patterns and make intelligent decisions based on data; the difficulty lies in the fact that the set of all possible behaviors given all possible inputs is too large to be covered by the set of observed examples (training data). Hence the learner must generalize from the given examples, so as to be able to produce a useful output in new cases. Machine learning, like all subjects in artificial intelligence, requires cross-disciplinary proficiency in several areas, such as probability theory, statistics, pattern recognition, cognitive science, data mining, adaptive control, computational neuroscience and theoretical computer science.

Definition

A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.

Generalization

The core objective of a learner is to generalize from its experience. The training examples from its experience come from some generally unknown probability distribution and the learner has to extract from them something more general, something about that distribution, that allows it to produce useful answers in new cases.

Human interaction

Some machine learning systems attempt to eliminate the need for human intuition in data analysis, while others adopt a collaborative approach between human and machine. Human intuition cannot, however, be entirely eliminated, since the system's designer must specify how the data is to be represented and what mechanisms will be used to search for a characterization of the data.

Algorithm types

Machine learning algorithms are organized into a taxonomy, based on the desired outcome of the algorithm.

  • Supervised learninggenerates a function that maps inputs to desired outputs. For example, in aclassification problem, the learner approximates a function mapping a vector into classes by looking at input-output examples of the function.
  • Unsupervised learningmodels a set of inputs, like clustering.
  • Semi-supervised learningcombines both labeled and unlabeled examples to generate an appropriate function or classifier.
  • Reinforcement learninglearns how to act given an observation of the world. Every action has some impact in the environment, and the environment provides feedback in the form of rewards that guides the learning algorithm.
  • Transductiontries to predict new outputs based on training inputs, training outputs, and test inputs.
  • Learning to learnlearns its owninductive bias based on previous experience.

Theory

The computational analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer science known as computational learning theory. Because training sets are finite and the future is uncertain, learning theory usually does not yield absolute guarantees of the performance of algorithms. Instead, probabilistic bounds on the performance are quite common.

In addition to performance bounds, computational learning theorists study the time complexity and feasibility of learning. In computational learning theory, a computation is considered feasible if it can be done in polynomial time. There are two kinds of time complexity results. Positive results show that a certain class of functions can be learned in polynomial time. Negative results show that certain classes cannot be learned in polynomial time.

There are many similarities between machine learning theory and statistics, although they use different terms.

Approaches

Decision tree learning

Decision tree learning uses a decision tree as a predictive model which maps observations about an item to conclusions about the item's target value.

Association rule learning

Association rule learning is a method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases.

Artificial neural networks

An artificial neural network (ANN), usually called "neural network" (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model that tries to simulate the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a


From Yahoo Answers

Question:okay so i was on my carnegie (those people who have th program at their schools know what im talking about) and i have advanced classes so instead of Bridge to Algebra i have the eighth grade version, Integrated Math. I was doing my carnegie, Level 23.6 and i came across this quadratic expression.... 432x^2 + 60x - 250 i need to factor it. meaning, i need to find 2 factors of 432 and 2 factors of -250 that when put in this specific format equal 432x^2 + 60x - 250. so..... (?x+??)*(?x+??) (the question marks are the factors. One q. mark is the factor of 432 and two q. mark is the factor of 250) please, i need help finding the factors. ive tried EVERYTHING....thanks!!

Answers:(72x - 50)(6x + 5) or (36x - 25)(12x + 10) There are two answers because there is a 2 that can be factored out of all the terms of the original expression before you do anything else. Another way of writing the same expression: 2(36x - 25)(6x + 5)

Question:I'm making a list of about 100 things to learn and I need your help. In the comments whoever leaves the most things to learn will get best answer. Any cool thing to learn dont need info just the activity or subject. THANKS!

Answers:drifting (in a car) to ski latin greek italian pig latin how to make wine fencing how to make a super delish cake leet speak how to make yummy pie tae kwon do karate basic robotic mechanics the meaning of truth the meaning of life how to throw a shuriken the tasks that hercules had to do the greek alphabet the ten deadly fallacies the basic organelles of a cell how to purify water how to make a web page how to make a blue laser (its fun) how to count in greek how to count in latin how to write a computer program how to make snow fom boiling h20 (throw it into -34 weather) how to play the tuba how to play baritone the seven deadly sins how rasputin died the History of Wolverine (x-men origins is slightly inaccurate to comics) how lion tamers tame lions how to draw a face of someone what the acronym SPLAT means how to build a house how to make pizza from scratch aristotle's view on truth how to debate in syllogisms the fatalities in Mortal Kombat the fatalities in Killer Instinct the moves in both those games the secrets in supermarioworld for SNES what's at the other end of a black hole (a white hole) how to outsmart cleverbot the moves in Street Fighter EX + the best active ingredients in deoderant how to manage time the dimensions of the earth how to recognize dinosaurs by name how to recognize cars/trucks/SUVs by name how to recognize dog breeds by name how to recognize cats by breed how to change a tire the algorithms for a rubiks cube the proof to Fermat's last theorem how to solve a sudoku how to usually win at checkers how to win at chess usually how to play Egyptian Rat-Screw how to fake at least 7 foreign accents basic color theory the alphabet backwards the schools of art (cubism, surreal...) how to make a blatant double-entendre naturally and play dumb how to pick a lock how to type how to hack an arcade game how to stomach a live worm how to spot fallacies in logic how to drive a manual transmission the names of the 12 astrological signs which mushrooms you could eat what to do in an avalanche (swim) the words to a song you don't know the square root of fish (4) how to use google effectively how to take excellent photographs how to make ice cream where nerve points on the body are. (for pain or pleasure) what the 7 kingdoms are what "canis lupus" is the grounds of the argument that Shakespeare's a plagiarizer how to breed Siamese Fighting Fish How to fake death (no pulse or anything) how to build the eiffel tower from sugar cubes how to discipline children how to fire a gun/ reload/upkeep how to drive how to fly a plane how to beat original pac-man how to mix paint how to move a water-bed (tween houses) who racer x is the names of the ninja turtles how to solve a 4 4 rubiks cube why the sky turns red at sunset how to hypnotise how to speed-read how to speak publicly (effectively) how to win at blackjack how to throw a football how to wrestle how to spell Mississippi The history of Sri Lanka/ Ceylon How to jump off a train how to build a time bomb w/ controlled explosion why the sky is blue how to count cards the name/arrangement of periodic table of the elements. how to fish how to build an antenna to intercept airplane transmissions the rules of golf the rules of football the rules of basketball the big names in greek mythology

Question:Has anyone else noticed some people seem to hang out here to blow others candles out to try to make theirs appear brighter? Example, I work as a photographer, I am very average, I have strong technique from years of schooling but lack in the artistic side of it, I'm the first to admit that. - I do architecture mostly. So I post a question like "do you like the view" I link to this image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/martini2005/2033258804/ i say this is a snapshot, Then I get people answering saying those pictures are average or they are snap shots, or just abusing me generally. I just told them they are snap shots - but they think they should point it out. So what is it all about? Are they insecure? Are they stupid? Are they jealous? Please if you know can you explain. I'm aware many are young here and many are just stupid. Many thanks. Please excuss my English I'm learning still, not a native speaker. 9 intelligent answers, can you believe it?? many thanks to all, love peace and best wishes to you all, might have to hang with you guys now.....

Answers:It's called levelling. They feel inferior to you Antoni, and they can not raise themselves to your level. Therefore they try to lower you to their level. It says a lot about them and despite what you may think, it also says a lot about you and some of the others on here. You are a threat, above the norm. As long as you are those things, you will have inferiorly talented people trying to cut your legs out from under you. Please don't give them credibility by allowing yourself to be upset about it. Take it as a compliment mon ami, and smile. The further you progress in your field, the more you realise that it is the mediocrity that are the difficult people. The high achievers are usually warm responsive and very giving people. I still get attacked regularly, usually by other artists I know that aren't selling. Yes the pain is there, but I now recognise it for what it is.. part and parcel of success my friend.

Question:1.Grammar-Translation Method 2.Direct Method 3.The Oral Approach/Situational Language Teaching 4.Audiolingual Method 5.Total Physical Response 6.The Silent Way 7.Community Language Learning Describe the main features of the teaching method. What do you or don t you like about each of those features (and why is the method criticized)? And how can you use or incorporate the method in your own classroom or in teaching? Be sure to answer the questions for each of the teaching methods. Each of your answer for each teaching method should be at least 200-250 words in length.

Answers:Your question is a good one for sure, but probably requires much more than most of us usually do in one answer. Here is part of it and should get you started ... "The Silent Way is the name of a method of language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno. The Silent Way views learning as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is a principal actor rather than a bench-bound listener. The main features could be stated as follows: 1) Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than re members and repeats what is to be learned. 2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. 3) Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned." I like this approach to learning, and used it a great deal. It supports the statement, "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn or show me and I understand." The Silent Way approach gets children involved in their own learning. When children are actively involved they learn. You might want to research Jerome Bruner for more information. In terms of discussing application of this method in the classroom, you could easily incorporate Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theories, which might enhance your assignment. Best of luck with your work.

From Youtube

Carnegie Learning: The Teacher Experience :Educators from around the country discuss the benefits and challenges associated with the Carnegie Learning collaborative classroom model and Cognitive Tutor software.

Learning English - Lesson Thirty Three (Questions & Answers) :In this lesson we take a look at asking and replying to questions. This is lesson 33.