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The enzyme RuBisCO catalyses the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate ...
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. It is one of the most important cycles of the earth and allows for carbon to be recycled and reused throughout the biosphere and all of its organisms. The carbon cycle was initially discovered by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, and popularized by Humphry Davy. It is now usually thought of as including the following major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange: The atmosphere The terrestrial biosphere, which is usually defined to include fresh water systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon. The oceans, including dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota, The sediments including fossil fuels. The Earth's interior, carbon from the Earth's mantle and crust is released to the atmosphere and hydrosphere by volcanoes and geothermal systems. The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest active pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but the deep ocean part of this pool does not rapidly exchange with the atmosphere in the absence of an external influence, such as a black smoker or an uncontrolled deep-water oil well leak. The global carbon budget is the balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere â†” biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for carbon dioxide. In the atmosphere Carbon exists in the Earth's atmosphere primarily as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Although it is a small percentage of the atmosphere (approximately 0.04% on a molar basis), it plays a vital role in supporting life. Other gases containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is entirely anthropogenic). Trees and other green plants such as grass convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates during photosynthesis, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is most prolific in relatively new forests where tree growth is still rapid. The effect is strongest in deciduous forests during spring leafing out. This is visible as an annual signal in the Keeling curve of measured CO2 concentration. Northern hemisphere spring predominates, as there is far more land in temperate latitudes in that hemisphere than in the southern. Forests store 86% of the planet's above-ground carbon and 73% of the planet's soil carbon. At the surface of the oceans towards the poles, seawater becomes cooler and more carbonic acid is formed as CO2 becomes more soluble. This is coupled to the ocean's thermohaline circulation which transports dense surface water into the ocean's interior (see the entry on the solubility pump). In upper ocean areas of high biological productivity, organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates to hard body parts such as shells and tests. These are, respectively, oxidized (soft-tissue pump) and redissolved (carbonate pump) at lower average levels of the ocean than those at which they formed, resulting in a downward flow of carbon (see entry on the biological pump). The weathering of silicate rock (see carbonate-silicate cycle). Carbonic acid reacts with weathered rock to produce bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions produced are carried to the ocean, where they are used to make marine carbonates. Unlike dissolved CO2 in equilibrium or tissues which decay, weathering does not move the carbon into a reservoir from which it can readily return to the atmosphere. In 1958, atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa was about 320 parts per million (ppm), and in 2010 it is about 385ppm. Future CO2 emission can be calculated by the kaya identity Carbon is released into the atmosphere in several ways: Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose (or other organic molecules) into carbon dioxide and water. Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide if oxygen is present, or methane if not. Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains, producing carbon dioxide (and other things, like water vapor). Burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas releases carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions of years. Burning agrofuels also releases carbon dioxide which has been stored for only a few years or less. Production of cement. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), a component of cement. At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic gases are primarily water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering ; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 years. In the biosphere Carbon is an essential part of life on Earth. About half the dry weight of most living organisms is carbon. It plays an important role in the structure, biochemistry, and nutrition of all living cells. Living biomass holds about 575 gigatons of carbon, most of which is wood. Soils hold upwards of 2700 gigatons, mostly in the form of organic carbon, with perhaps a third of that inorganic forms of carbon such as calcium carbonate. Autotrophs are organisms that produce their own organic compounds using carbon dioxide from the air or water in which they live. To do this they require an external source of energy. Almost all autotrophs use solar radiation to provide this, and their production process is called photosynthesis. A small number of autotrophs exploit chemical energy sources in a process called chemosynthesis. The most important autotrophs for the carbon cycle are trees in forests on land and phytoplankton in the Earth's oceans. Photosynthesis follows the reaction 6CO2 + 6H2O â†’ C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon is transferred within the biosphere as heterotrophs feed on other organisms or their parts (e.g., fruits). This includes the uptake of dead organic material (detritus) by fungi and bacteria for fermentation or decay. Most carbon leaves the biosphere through respiration. When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs, which releases carbon dioxide into the surrounding air or water, following the reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 â†’ 6CO2 + 6H2O. Otherwise, anaerobic respiration occurs and releases methane into the surrounding environment, which eventually makes its way into the atmosphere or hydrosphere (e.g., as marsh gas or flatulence). Burning of biomass (e.g. forest fires, wood used for heating, anything else organic) can also transfer substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere Carbon may also be circulated within the biosphere when dead organic matter (such as peat) becomes incorporated in the geosphere. Animal shells of calcium carbonate, in particular, may eventually become limestone through the process of sedimentation. Much remains to be learned about the cycling of carbon in the deep ocean. For example, a recent discovery is that larvacean mucus houses (commonly known as "sinkers") are created in such large numbers that they can deliver as much carbon to the deep ocean as has been previously detected by sediment traps. Because of their size and composition, these houses are rarely collected in such traps, so most biogeochemical analyses have erroneously ignored them. Carbon storage in the biosphere is influenced by a number
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Answers:Location:_____________________________ Stroma of chloroplasts Reactants:____________________________ CO2, ATP, NADPH2 Products:_____________________________ ADP +Pi, NADP+, Glucose.
Answers:The Steps of the Calvin Cycle After the substances needed are made by the light reaction, the next thing to be done is the Calvin cycle, which is also known as the dark reaction. This process does not need direct light from the sun in order to work, but needs the products, the energy that came from the sun (solar energy) that was changed into chemical energy which the plant may use by the earlier reaction. There are three main phases for the Calvin cycle. They are the following: 1. Carbon fixation --> named for the compound carbon dioxide (CO2), the cycle takes each carbon dioxide molecule and attaches it to a five carbon sugar (abbr. 5-C sugar), and therefore producing a six carbon compound (6-C) that is so highly unstable, it automatically splits into 2 molecules of another substance, called 3-phosphoglycerate. 2. Reduction --> here, the product made by the carbon fixation, the 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (we'll call it 3-phos. for our convenience), will each receive an additional phosphate group from an ATP molecule, and thus become 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate as a product. next, a pair of electrons from donated from NADPH reduce 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), which stores more potential energy. G3P is a sugar. the cycle began with 15 carbons' worth of carbohydrate in the form of 3 molecules of the 5-C sugar RuBP. One molecule exits the cycle to be used by the plant cell, but the other 5 molecules must be recycled to regenerate the 3 molecules of RuBP. 3. Regeneration of CO2 acceptor (RuBP) --> in this last step of the Calvin cycle, the carbon skeletons of 5 molecules of G3P are rearranged into 3 molecules of ATP. In order to accomplish it, the cycle spends 3 more molecules of ATP. The RuBP is now ready to receive CO2 again, and the cycle continues.
Answers:The second stage of photosynthesis, which takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast, can occur without the presence of sunlight. In this stage, known as the Calvin Cycle, carbon molecules from CO2 are fixed into glucose (C6H12O2). The reactions of the Calvin Cycle is as follows: 1. A five-carbon sugar molecule called ribulose bisphosphate, or RuBP, is the acceptor that binds CO2 dissolved in the stroma. This process, called CO2 fixation, is catalyzed by the enzyme RuBP carboxylase, forming an unstable six-carbon molecule. This molecule quickly breaks down to give two molecules of the three-carbon 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG), also called phosphoglyceric acid (PGA). 2. The two 3PG molecules are converted into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P, a.k.a. phosphoglyceraldehyde, PGAL) molecules, a three-carbon sugar phosphate, by adding a high-energy phosphate group from ATP, then breaking the phosphate bond and adding hydrogen from NADH + H+. 3. Three turns of the cycle, using three molecules of CO2, produces six molecules of G3P. However, only one of the six molecules exits the cycle as an output, while the remaining five enter a complex process that regenerates more RuBP to continue the cycle. Two molecules of G3P, produced by a total of six turns of the cycle, combine to form one molecule of glucose.
Answers:actually I believe that its a 3 carbon molecule that leaves the calvins cycle, the molecule that leaves is called glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate this molecule can either be... 1)used to make glucose and other carbohydrates or 2)used to regenerate the Calvins cycle hope this helps =D