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Pie chart

A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circularchart divided into sectors, illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. When angles are measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfair's Statistical Breviary of 1801.

The pie chart is perhaps the most ubiquitous statistical chart in the business world and the mass media. However, it has been criticized, and some recommend avoiding it, pointing out in particular that it is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be an effective way of displaying information in some cases, in particular if the intent is to compare the size of a slice with the whole pie, rather than comparing the slices among them. Pie charts work particularly well when the slices represent 25 to 50% of the data, but in general, other plots such as the bar chart or the dot plot, or non-graphical methods such as tables, may be more adapted for representing certain information.It also shows the frequency within certain groups of information.


The following example chart is based on preliminary results of the election for the European Parliament in 2004. The table lists the number of seats allocated to each party group, along with the derived percentage of the total that they each make up. The values in the last column, the derived central angle of each sector, is found by multiplying the percentage by 360°.

*Because of rounding, these totals do not add up to 100 and 360.

The size of each central angle is proportional to the size of the corresponding quantity, here the number of seats. Since the sum of the central angles has to be 360°, the central angle for a quantity that is a fraction Q of the total is 360Q degrees. In the example, the central angle for the largest group (European People's Party (EPP)) is 135.7° because 0.377 times 360, rounded to one decimal place(s), equals 135.7.

Use, effectiveness and visual perception

Pie charts are common in business and journalism, perhaps because they are perceived as being less "geeky" than other types of graph. However statisticians generally regard pie charts as a poor method of displaying information, and they are uncommon in scientific literature. One reason is that it is more difficult for comparisons to be made between the size of items in a chart when area is used instead of length and when different items are shown as different shapes. Stevens' power law states that visual area is perceived with a power of 0.7, compared to a power of 1.0 for length. This suggests that length is a better scale to use, since perceived differences would be linearly related to actual differences.

Further, in research performed at AT&T Bell Laboratories, it was shown that comparison by angle was less accurate than comparison by length. This can be illustrated with the diagram to the right, showing three pie charts, and, below each of them, the corresponding bar chart representing the same data. Most subjects have difficulty ordering the slices in the pie chart by size; when the bar chart is used the comparison is much easier.. Similarly, comparisons between data sets are easier using the bar chart. However, if the goal is to compare a given category (a slice of the pie) with the total (the whole pie) in a single chart and the multiple is close to 25 or 50 percent, then a pie chart can often be more effective than a bar graph.

Variants and similar charts

Polar area diagram

The polar area diagram is similar to a usual pie chart, except sectors are equal angles and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the center of the circle. The polar area diagram is used to plot cyclic phenomena (e.g., count of deaths by month). For example, if the count of deaths in each month for a year are to be plotted then there will be 12 sectors (one per month) all with the same angle of 30 degrees each. The radius of each sector would be proportional to the square root of the death count for the month, so the area of a sector represents the number of deaths in a month. If the death count in each month is subdivided by cause of death, it is possible to make multiple comparisons on one diagram, as is clearly seen in the form of polar area diagram famously developed by Florence Nightingale.

The first known use of polar area diagrams was by André-Michel Guerry, which he called courbes circulaires, in an 1829 paper showing seasonal and daily variation in wind direction over the year and births and deaths by hour of the day. Léon Lalanne later used a polar diagram to show the frequency of wind directions around compass points in 1843. The wind rose is still used by meteorologists. Nightingale published her rose diagram in 1858. The name "coxcomb" is sometimes used erroneously. This was the name Nightingale used to refer to a book containing the diagrams rather than the diagrams themselves. It has been suggested that most of Nightingale's early reputation was built on her ability to give clear and concise presentations of data.

Spie chart

A useful variant of the polar area chart is the spie chart designed by Feitelson . This superimposes a normal pie chart with a modified polar area chart to permit the comparison of a set of data at two different states. For the first state, for example time 1, a normal pie chart is drawn. For the second state, the angles of the slices are the same as in the original pie chart, and the radii vary according to the change in the value of each variable. In addition to comparing a partition at two times (e.g. this year's budget distribution with last year's budget distribution), this is useful for visualizing hazards for population groups (e.g. the distribution of age and gener groups among road casualties compared with these groups's sizes in the general population). The R Graph Gallery provides an example.

Multi-level pie chart

Multi-level pie chart, also known as a radial tree c

Joanna Angel

Joanna Angel (born December 25, 1980) is an American alternativepornographic actress, Punk fashion, director and writer of adult films. She used her real first name of Joanna for her stage name.

Early life

Angel was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to an Orthodox Jewish Israeli mother and an American father. She was raised in River Edge in Bergen County, New Jersey, where she attended Cherry Hill Elementary School and graduated from River Dell High School in 1998. After graduating at age 17, she enrolled in Rutgers University, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature with a minor in Film Studies.

She worked in a Kosher fast food restaurant in Teaneck NJ during high school, then at an Applebees and another restaurant, called Happy's Health Grille during college.

After finishing her degree she relocated to the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York, and created the website BurningAngel, a hardcore adult site catering to an emerging genre dubbed alt porn, while she danced as a stripper at night. Her website followed in the footsteps of the very popular SuicideGirls, which she has referred to as "the McDonald's of alt porn." When asked whether she thought that alt porn was turning into a movement she stated, "I think it's a movement. I think I've started something."


Joanna has written, produced, directed and starred in films available exclusively through Burning Angel as well as appearing in more traditionally distributed adult films. She was under an exclusive contract with VCA Pictures which expired in March 2007, and was, at one time, represented by the adult talent agency Bad Ass Models.

Following the success of Burning Angel, Angel has been featured in numerous magazines and newspapers, including The New York Times. She was nominated in 2006 for theAVN Awards for both "Best New Starlet" and "Best Actress," and although she won neither, she did take home the award for "Most Outrageous Sex Scene" for her appearance in Re-Penetrator.

She briefly wrote a monthly sex advice column for Spin. She also contributed a chapter to the book Naked Ambition: Women Pornographers and How They Are Changing the Sex Industry.

She was nominated for the 2009 AVN Award for "The Jenna Jameson Crossover Star of the Year".

In 2010, Angel appeared in a Public Service Announcement for the Free Speech Coalition on the topic of internet piracy of adult content, directed by Michael Whiteacre. The spot, entitled the "FSC All-Star Anti-Piracy PSA" found her in the company of adult performers such as Lisa Ann, Julie Meadows, Kimberly Kane, Ron Jeremy, and Wicked Pictures contract stars Alektra Blue and Kaylani Lei.

In 2011, she was named by CNBC as one of the 12 most popular stars in porn. CNBC noted that she owns her own studio and that the "punk look" that she and her other actors share has created a new genre in the porn industry called Alt porn.


  • 2006 AVN Award– Most Outrageous Sex Scene - Re-Penetrator (with Tommy Pistol)
  • 2007 AVN Award – Best Sex Comedy – Joanna's Angels 2: Alt Throttle (Performer and Director)
  • 2008 XRCO Award– Best On-Screen Chemistry (with James Deen)
  • 2008 AVN Award – Best Specialty Release, Other Genre – Cum on My Tattoo 3 by Burning Angel Entertainment
  • 2011 AVN Award – Best Porn Star Website – JoannaAngel.com
  • 2011 AVN Award – Best Solo Sex Scene – Rebel Girl

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I have to finish this Pie Chart for Social studies... and its asking me to construct a Pie chart... but one of the statistics are 0 degrees, how do i construct or make that? do i draw a line only and name it 0 degrees?

Answers:Yeah, I think you just draw a radius line in the circle and label it 0 degrees. You should have other percentages on the same circle. If you don't have a line, then no one would know that there was ever a stats on it, so I guess you would draw a line to represent the 0 percent. Good luck.

Question:A peice of wood burns completly in one second at 600 degrees Celsius. The time the wood takes to burn is doubled for every 10 degrees celsius drop in temperature and halved for every 10 degrees celsius increase in temperature. In how many seconds would the wood burn at a) 500 degrees Celsius? b) 650 degrees Celsius?

Answers:a) the way to look at this is that the difference between 600 and 500 represents 10 of those ten degree decreases; if the burning time doubles for each ten degree decrease, there are ten such doubling times, which means the time increases by ten factors of 2 which we can write at 2^10. This is 1024 (which you can verify with a calculator or by multiplying 2 by itself ten times). Thus, the wood will take 1024 seconds to burn b) similarly, there are five halving periods in this case, so the time it takes the wood to burn is reduced by (1/2)^5 or by 1/32; the wood will burn in a mere 1/32 seconds

Question:I have to create a graph in Excel that is a 3D cluster column graph that has a monetary amount on the left side, 2 month names on the right side (the series) and insert names at the bottom of the graph that are at a -45degree angle, plus get the bars in the chart to match to their correct place monetarily. I am not able to add the month names or the names at the bottom of the chart or enter the cash amount on the left or get the charts to match up!! Basically I can't do any of it! I have been working on this for 4 days now and I am at a loss. If anyone can help me or understands what I am talking about please be so kind. Thank you.

Answers:I have Excel 2000, so I hope the following steps are at least similar to the version you have. Prior to beginning it is a good idea to format the column, which will include your monetary values, to make sure they are entered with the $ sign. This will allow your values to automatically show up on the left side of your chart with the $ sign. 1. If you have not found the 3D cluster column graph yet, it is under the "Custom Types" tab labeled B&W Column. 2. After selecting the chart, click "Next", then click the Series tab. 3. You will probably see Series 1 and Series 2, or something similar listed in the Series Box. Highlight Series 1. Place your cursor in the Name box. Type in the first name of the Month that you wish it to be. 4. Next, highlight the information in the Values box. Click on the cell or cells, on your spreadsheet, that you wish to be the values here. Click the Add button (which is below the Series Box). 5. Highlight Series 2 and repeat the process above putting in your second month, then selecting your cell or cells for the values. Click Add again. 6. Highlight any other Series 3,4,5, etc., which may be listed in the Series Box and click Remove for each one. You should only be left with 2; the ones you just named. 7. In the Category (X) axis labels box enter the name you wish, which will appear at the bottom of the graph. Click OK. 8. Click Legend tab and tick the Show Legend Box 9. Click the Data Labels tab and select Show Value 10. Click the Data Table tab and uncheck the Show data table 11. Click the Finish button 12. On your actual chart, which now appears, right-click the name you added at the bottom. This will be your Category Axis area. Select Format Axis. Select the Alignment tab. There are 4 ways to set the angle. One is to type -45 into the degree box, use the up and down arrows, drag the line to the -45 degree mark with your mouse cursor, or click on the tiny diamond at the -45 degree mark. Click OK. 13. If your values are not showing up for some reason, right-click on your chart, select Chart Options, select Data Labels and make sure the Show Value is selected. 14. You can format your values as well for easier reading. On the chart itself, right-click on the value that appears above each column. Select Format Data Labels, click the Patterns tab, then choose the color you wish. Click OK. You can always change it if you wish. 15. You can also change the column colors as well. Right-click on a column. Select Format Data Series, click on the Patterns tab, select your color and click OK. Hope this helps you out with what you need. If not, please feel free to email me and I will be glad to help further.

Question:Planet Positions, Ascendant, & Houses The following table shows the position of the planets in your chart, by sign and degree. On the right, you will find the sign of your Ascendant and the signs on the cusp of each house in your natal chart. The Roman Numerals refer to the houses, where the Ascendant is also the first house and the Midheaven is also the tenth house. For example, if the sign Taurus is next to Mars, you know your Mars is in Taurus. If the sign Libra is next to Venus, you know your Venus is in Libra. If Cancer is next to Ascendant, you have a Cancer Ascendant, and if Leo is next to II, Leo is on your 2nd house. Zodiac in degrees 0.00 Time unknown Sun Libra 1.20 Moon Cancer 7.12 Mercury Virgo 26.27 Venus Scorpio 13.57 Mars Scorpio 3.18 Jupiter Leo 3.28 Saturn Virgo 7.29 Uranus Scorpio 14.04 Neptune Sagittarius 15.46 Pluto Libra 16.01 Lilith Cancer 27.53 Asc node Virgo 26.47 Aspects The following table shows the planetary aspects in your natal chart. Short interpretations are found below. Planet Aspect Planet Orb/Value Sun Square Moon 5.52 -3 Sun Conjunction Mercury 4.53 276 Sun Sextile Jupiter 2.08 70 Moon Trine Venus 6.45 26 Moon Trine Mars 3.54 173 Moon Sextile Saturn 0.17 362 Moon Trine Uranus 6.52 25 Venus Conjunction Uranus 0.07 277 Mars Square Jupiter 0.10 -161 Neptune Sextile Pluto 0.15 56 1265 -164 1101 ** no rude ppl and pls gave real answers and if you don't know the answers do not comments . thanks

Answers:Ok, So, with your sun square your moon, you emotional needs and your drive are at odds with each other. I would think that this would express itself as a basic self destructive thought process, and great difficulty in figuring out which direction to exert your energies. But, this is not so difficult, because you have many aspects that are awesome. Such as your Sun conjunct Mercury. When you speak, you speak from your heart, and you are very smart and can use your intellectual and communicative abilities to get to where you need to go. You also have a moon trine venus, which endeers you to people. You are probably very easily liked and kind and gentle. Your moon sextile your saturn means you are probably considerably mature and can handle a lot without freaking out. Your venus conjunct uranus, would probably make you restless and unique in your relationship ventures. You need an excited love life in order to maintain your attention. You mars is square jupiter. I'm not exactly sure what this represents, but maybe you deal sometimes with things that are a bit shady? Correct me if I'm wrong, I would love to know. But your sun in libra, means you balance things, and your cancer moon means you're a care giver, your virgo mercury indicates a meticulous mind, probably picking apart everything I just slapped on this computer screen, your venus and mars in scorpio means you are probably very intense and almost obsessively involved in your affairs of the heart, ruthless and penetrating.

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