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botanical names of fruits and vegetables

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From Wikipedia

List of culinary vegetables - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of vegetables in the culinary sense. This means that the list includes some botanical fruits such as pumpkins, and does not include herbs, ...

List of culinary fruits - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are ..... Cactaceae) used as both a fruit and vegetable depending on part of plant. ...

Heirloom plant

An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, or (especially in the UK) heirloom vegetable is a cultivar that was commonly grown during earlier periods in human history, but which is not used in modern large-scale agriculture. Many heirloom vegetables have kept their traits through open pollination, while fruit varieties such as apples have been propagated over the centuries through grafts and cuttings. The trend of growing heirloom plants in gardens has been growing in popularity in the United States and Europe over the last decade.

Origin

Before the industrialization of agriculture, a much wider variety of plant foods was grown for human consumption. In modern agriculture in the industrialized world, most food crops are now grown in large, monocultural plots. In order to maximize consistency, few varieties of each type of crop are grown. These varieties are often selected for their productivity, their ability to withstand mechanical picking and cross-country shipping, and their tolerance to drought, frost, or pesticides. Heirloom gardening is a reaction against this trend. In the Global South, heirloom plants are still widely grown, for example in the home gardens of South and Southeast Asia.

Motivation to grow

Heirloom growers have different motivations. Some people grow heirlooms for historical interest, while others want to increase the available gene pool for a particular plant for future generations. Some select heirloom plants due to an interest in traditional organic gardening. Many simply want to taste the different varieties of vegetables, or see whether they can grow a rare variety of plant.

Requirements

The definition of the use of the word heirloom to describe plants is highly debated.

One school of thought places an age or date point on the cultivars. For instance, one school says the cultivar must be over 100 years old, others 50 years, and others prefer the date of 1945 which marks the end of World War II and roughly the beginning of widespread hybrid use by growers and seed companies or industrial agriculture. Many gardeners consider 1951 to be the latest year a plant can have originated and still be called an heirloom, since that year marked the widespread introduction of the first hybrid varieties. It was in the 1970s that hybrid seeds began to proliferate in the commercial seed trade. Some heirloom plants are much older, some being apparently pre-historic.

Another way of defining heirloom cultivars is to use the definition of the word "heirloom" in its truest sense. Under this interpretation, a true heirloom is a cultivar that has been nurtured, selected, and handed down from one family member to another for many generations.

Additionally, there is another category of cultivars that could be classified as "commercial heirlooms," cultivars that were introduced many generations ago and were of such merit that they have been saved, maintained and handed down - even if the seed company has gone out of business or otherwise dropped the line. Additionally, many old commercial releases have actually been family heirlooms that a seed company obtained and introduced.

Regardless of a person's specific interpretation, most authorities agree that heirlooms, by definition, must be open-pollinated. They may also be open pollinated varieties that were bred and stabilized using classic breeding practices. While there are no genetically modified tomatoes available for commercial or home use, it is generally agreed that no genetically modified organisms can be considered heirloom cultivars. Another important point of discussion is that without the ongoing growing and storage of heirloom plants, the seed companies and the government will control all seed distribution. Most, if not all, hybrid plants, if regrown, will not be the same as the original hybrid plant, thus ensuring the dependency on seed distributors for future crops.

Genetic variation

Typically, heirlooms have adapted over time to whatever climate and soil they have grown in. Due to their genetics, they are often resistant to local pests, diseases, and extremes of weather.

Collection sites

Heirloom roses are sometimes collected (nondestructively as small leaf cuttings) from vintage homes and from cemeteries, where they were once planted at gravesites by mourners and left undisturbed in the decades since. Modern production methods and the rise in population have largely supplanted this practice.

UK and EU law and national lists

In the UK and Europe, it is thought that many Heritage vegetable varieties (perhaps over 2000) have been lost since the 1970s, when EU laws were passed to make it illegal to sell any vegetable cultivar that is not on a national list of any EU country. This was set up to help in eliminating dishonest seed suppliers selling one seed as another, and to keep any one variety true. Thus there were stringent tests to assess varieties, with a view to ensuring they remain the same from one generation to the next.

These tests (called DUS) encompass Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. But since some heritage cultivars are not necessarily uniform from plant to plant, or indeed within a single plant - a single cultivar - this has been a sticking point. Distinctness has been a problem, moreover, because many cultivars have several names, perhaps coming from different areas or countries (eg. Carrot cultivar 'Long Surrey Red' is also genuinely known as 'Red Intermediate', 'St. Valery' and 'Chertsey'.). However, it has been ascertained that some of these varieties that look similar are in fact different cultivars. On the other hand, two that were known to be different cultivars were almost identical to each other; thus the one would be dropped from the national list in order to clean it up.

Another problem has been the fact that it is somewhat expensive to register and then maintain a cultivar on a national list. Therefore, if no seed-breeder or supplier thinks it will sell very well, no-one will maintain it on a list, and so the seed will not be re-bred by commercial seed breeders.

In recent years, p


From Yahoo Answers

Question:

Answers:If you're in the US, check with your local extension service (try doing a google search with your state name + extension and restrict the search to site:.edu) Most states have lists of recommended fruit and vegetable cultivars that do well for most gardeners in that state most years. If you're in a big state, you'll likely find lists for, say, gulf coast, hill country, west Texas, or northern and southern California, or such. If you're in a small state, check lists from adjacent states, too -- like Massachusetts and Connecticut as well as Rhode Island. If you give us a few more clues about where you live, we can help more.

Question:what is vegetative propagation?what are the advantages of vegetative propagation?-from the chapter reproduction and development in angiosperms

Answers:vegetative propagation, the ability of plants to reproduce without sexual reproduction, by producing new plants from existing vegetative structures. Some plants, such as the Canada thistle and most bamboos, send out long underground stems that produce new plants, often at considerable distances from the original plant. Such plants can form enormous colonies of new plants within a relatively few years. Many trees, such as the beech and aspen, send up root sprouts, and large colonies of new trees thus arise. In other trees, the lower branches may produce roots where they rest upon the ground, and new trees are produced. The leaves of some plants produce buds at their edges, which develop in turn into miniature plants that fall off and take root. Specialists in the fields of agriculture and horticulture take advantage of the regenerative ability of plants through such techniques as the rooting of cuttings; grafting and budding of fruit trees; layering, or inducing the tips of branches to produce new plants; the cutting apart of clusters of perennials perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial Advantages and Disadvantages of Vegetative Propagation Advantages The offsprings are genetically identical and therefore advantageous traits can be preserved. Only one parent is required which eliminates the need for special mechanisms such as pollination, etc. It is faster. For example, bacteria can multiply every 20 minutes. This helps the organisms to increase in number at a rapid rate that balances the loss in number due to various causes. Many plants are able to tide over unfavourable conditions. This is because of the presence of organs of asexual reproduction like the tubers, corm, bulbs, etc. Vegetative propagation is especially beneficial to the agriculturists and horticulturists. They can raise crops like bananas, sugarcane, potato, etc that do not produce viable seeds. The seedless varieties of fruits are also a result of vegetative propagation. The modern technique of tissue culture can be used to grow virus-free plants. Disadvantages The plants gradually lose their vigour as there is no genetic variation. They are more prone to diseases that are specific to the species. This can result in the destruction of an entire crop. Since many plants are produced, it results in overcrowding and lack of nutrients.

Question:If someone could copy and paste the names of fruits and vegetables and how many calories they are in a nice order and I will give them 10 points. I want this done as soon as tou can pretty pretty please!

Answers:too many fruits and veggies to list..heres a link http://www.weightlossresources.co.uk/calories/calorie_counter/fruit.htm http://www.thinthin.com/CalorieIndexVeg.html

Question:I have a fish i don't know if you guys know about it but its called a pleco they eat fruits and vegetables but acidic ones aren't good for them or my water so i want you to name me all the acidic ones so i can avoid this right now all i am feeding them is Cucumbers and Zucchini but i would like there to be a variety of fruits and veggies in there diet. lol na they aren't extinct maybe your thinking of something else...Here's mine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LDIyahPI9Xg .... and thanks for all the help guys

Answers:http://www.angelfire.com/az/sthurston/acid_alkaline_foods_list.html this site lists a TON of acidic fruits and veggies (and a bunch of other foods) so maybe it will help i know strawberries are really acidic too :)

From Youtube

SMASHING FRUIT! :Smashing a bunch of fruit to the tune of Mr. Roger's Neighborhood. How lovely! MORE VIDEOS www.youtube.com TWITTER www.twitter.com FACEBOOK www.facebook.com ITUNES itunes.apple.com In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds. The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries and bananas. Seed-associated structures that do not fit these informal criteria are usually called by other names, such as vegetables, pods, nut, ears and cones. In biology (botany), a "fruit" is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries. Taken strictly, this definition excludes many structures that are "fruits" in the common sense of the term, such as those produced by non-flowering plants (like juniper berries, which are the seed-containing female cones of conifers), and fleshy fruit-like growths that develop from other plant tissues close to the fruit (accessory fruit, or more rarely false fruit or pseudocarp), such as cashew fruits. Often the botanical fruit is only part of the common fruit, or is merely adjacent to it. On the other hand, the botanical sense includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains ...

Dave Sheehan Eats a Fruit :In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds. The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries and bananas, or the similar-looking structures in other plants, even if they are non-edible or non-sweet in the raw state, such as lemons and olives. Seed-associated structures that do not fit these informal criteria are usually called by other names, such as vegetables, pods, nut, ears and cones. In biology (botany), on the other hand, a "fruit" is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries. Taken strictly, this definition excludes many structures that are "fruits" in the common sense of the term, such as those produced by non-flowering plants (like juniper berries, which are the seed-containing female cones of conifers[1]), and fleshy fruit-like growths that develop from other plant tissues close to the fruit (accessory fruit, or more rarely false fruit or pseudocarp), such as cashew fruits. Often the botanical fruit is only part of the common fruit, or is merely adjacent to it. On the other hand, the botanical sense includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, tomatoes, and many more ...