bose einstein condensate definition
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Condensed matter physics is the field of physics dealing with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. These properties appear when a number of atoms, typically larger than the molecular scale, interact strongly and adhere to each other or are otherwise highly concentrated in a system. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids. Such every-day condensed phases arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms. More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices, and the Bose-Einstein condensate found in certain ultracold atomic systems.
Condensed matter physics aims at understanding the behavior of these phases by using well-established physical laws, in particular those of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The diversity of systems and phenomena available for study makes condensed matter physics by far the largest field of contemporary physics. By one estimate, one third of all United Statesphysicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. The field has a large overlap with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and there are close connections with the related fields of atomic physics and biophysics. Theoretical condensed matter physics also shares many important concepts and techniques with theoretical particle and nuclear physics.
Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, now considered one of its main subfields. The name of the field was apparently coined in 1967 by Philip Anderson and Volker Heine when they renamed their research group in the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge from "Solid-State Theory" to "Theory of Condensed Matter". In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Physical Society was renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics. One of the reasons for this change is that many of the concepts and techniques developed for studying solids can also be applied to fluid systems. For instance, the conduction electrons in an electrical conductor form a Fermi liquid, with similar properties to conventional liquids made up of atoms or molecules. Even the phenomenon of superconductivity, in which the quantum-mechanical properties of the electrons lead to collective behavior fundamentally different from that of a classical fluid, is closely related to the superfluid phase of liquid helium.
Topics in condensed matter physics
- Generic phases - Gas(* uncondensed); Liquid; Solid
- Low temperature phases - Fermi gas; Fermi liquid; Fermionic condensate; Luttinger liquid; Superfluid; Composite fermions; Supersolid
- Phase phenomena - Order parameter; Phase transition; Cooling curve
- Surface tension
- Domain growth - Nucleation; Spinodal decomposition
- Interfacial growth - Dendritic growth; Solidification fronts; Viscous fingering
- Crystalline solids
- Types - From Yahoo Answers
Question:Some scientists got a Nobel prize in 2001 for showing Einsteins' help in predicting the "Bose-Einstein Condensate." So now, do we have 5 states of matter? From hot to cold: 1) Plasma 2) Gas 3 Liquid 4) Solid 5) Bose-Einstein Condensate any opinions?
Answers:Yes, science marches on & now there are 5. Good question.Question:I've searched the whole web (okay, not all) but most if the sites I went to said that beam is the 5th state of matter. While some said the 5th state of matter is BEC. I am really confused, which is really the 5th state of matter? Or is beam and BEC the same? Yes I know plasma is the 4th state :)
Answers:see the linkQuestion:If you have this 5 states of matter:Bose-Einstein Condensates, solids, liquids, gases, plasmas would they be in the right order? which ones are physical, chemical , nuclear homogeneous and heterogeneous?
Answers:all of the states are physical. plasma and the bose-einstein condensate would likely be the only nuclear-homogeneous states. interestingly enough, string theory has shown that in the right conditions, the bose-einstein condensate and the plasma will act exactly the same.
From YoutubeMichio on Bose-Einstein Condensates :Dr. Kiki asks Dr. Michio Kaku a question from Justin Gill about Bose-Einstein Condensates. Twitter provided a great forum for collecting questions for Dr. Kaku. Distributed by Tubemogul.Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate :Superfluids are distinguished from normal fluids by their peculiar response to rotation: circulating flow in superfluid helium, a strongly coupled Bose liquid, can appear only as quantized vortices. The newly created Bose-Einstein condensates - clouds of millions of ultracold, weakly interacting alkali-metal atoms that occupy a single quantum state - offer the possibility of investigating superfluidity in the weak-coupling regime. An outstanding question is whether Bose-Einstein condensates exhibit a mesoscopic quantum analogue of the macroscopic vortices in superfluids, and what its experimental signature would be. Here we report calculations of the low-energy states of a rotating, weakly interacting Bose gas. We find a succession of transitions between stable vortex patterns of differing symmetries that are in general qualitative agreement with observations of rotating superfluid helium, a strong-coupling superfluid. Counterintuitively, the angular momentum per particle is not quantized. Some angular momenta are forbidden, corresponding to asymmetrical unstable states that provide a physical mechanism for the entry of vorticity into the condensate.