Project: To study in detail about non-communicable diseases.
Non-communicable disease is a medical condition or a disease or a disorder which is not transferable among people. These diseases may be chronic, they may be of long duration, slow progression and they may result in rapid death. Non communicable diseases include heart ailments, autoimmune diseases, cancers, stroke, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease, etc.
Non-communicable disease definition: Non-communicable diseases are defined as a medical condition or disease or a disorder that is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people.
Risk factors for non-communicable diseases are the person's background, lifestyle and environment the person lives in. Risk factors also include age, sex, genetics; exposure to pollution, and smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, these behaviors can lead to hypertension and obesity leading to increased risk of non-communicable diseases.
The WHO (World Health Organization) has identified five important risk factors for non communicable diseases are high blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol, use of tobacco, alcohol consumption and obesity.
Some genetic disorders are also non-communicable diseases. These disorders are also caused by errors in the genome of the person which causes diseases in the affected people. Genetic disorders can occur due to spontaneous mutations or errors. Change in chromosome numbers (Down’s syndrome). Defect in the gene due to mutation (Cystic fibrosis).
Non communicable disease list:
Cancer - Majority of cancers are caused to risk in environmental and life-style related factors. Most of the cancers are preventable avoiding risk factors like tobacco, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity etc.
Cardiovascular disease - Cardiovascular diseases are caused due to risk factors like obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, fast foods, etc.
Diabetes - Type 2 diabetes is preventable but difficult to cure. Keeping the blood sugar levels close to normal is possible preventing the patient from danger. This can be achieved by dietary management, physical exercise, and appropriate medications. Risk factors to this include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, obesity and lack of physical exercise.
Non-communicable diseases hinder social progress and it is closely linked to poverty. Rise in the cases of these diseases predict the rise in poverty level in low-income countries. People in lower social positions are at a disadvantage as they get sick and die soon being exposed to risk factors like tobacco, unhealthy food and access to health care is limited. The health-care costs are driving families to poverty. In the third world countries harmful drinking and unhealthy diet and unhealthy lifestyle occurs in both higher and lower social groups.
Prevention and Control
- To decrease the impact of non-communicable diseases a broad approach is required in health, finance, education, planning and others. Promote treatments to prevent and control the diseases.
- Another important way is to reduce risk factors related with these diseases.
- Other ways to prevent these diseases is to provide low-cost primary health care services.