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#### • about chemical pollution

Biodegradable pollutants are those that can be broken down into simple elements and substances by the action of bacteria and other decomposers. These pollutants are degraded slowly by microbes. When the production of these pollutants is more than the degrading capacity it results in pollution.

From the biological point pollution can be of two types biodegradable and non-degradable pollutants. The degradable pollutants are those which can be degraded, decomposed, removed or reduced to acceptable limits either by the natural processes or by man-made systems like the sewage treatment plants. Degradable pollutants can be of two types rapidly degradable or non-persistent pollutants and slowly degradable or persistent pollutants.

Pollutants that are non-persistent are like sewage and agricultural waste can be normally decomposed quickly if the system is not overloaded. Persistent degradable pollutants like some radioactive materials decompose slowly but they are broken down completely or they are reduced to harmless levels.

Degradable pollutants are organic substances like the wastes from sewage and industries and are dead organisms which can undergo decomposition naturally. Biodegradable pollutants include substances which can undergo physical degradation or decay. Some substances like the radioactive isotopes have long half-life and may be practically considered as non-degradable. Some substance may be degradable or other may be slowly degradable.

Biodegradable substances are those pollutants which are decomposed or degraded by the action of microorganism. These waste products show quite rapid degradation. Generally these substances do not accumulate in the environment. These pollutants can be used to produce useful products like manure, compost and biogas.

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From Wikipedia

Pollutant

A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil, and is the cause of pollution.

Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, its concentration and its persistence. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term. However the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from degradation of DDT

## Types of pollutants

### Stock pollutants

Pollutants that the environment has little or no absorptive capacity are called stock pollutants (e.g. persistent synthetic chemicals, non-biodegradable plastics, and heavy metals). Stock pollutants accumulate in the environment over time. The damage they cause increases as more pollutant is emitted, and persists as the pollutant accumulates. Stock pollutants can create a burden for future generations by passing on damage that persists well after the benefits received from incurring that damage have been forgotten.

### Fund pollutants

Fund pollutants are those for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Fund pollutants do not cause damage to the environment unless the emission rate exceeds the receiving environment's absorptive capacity (e.g. carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by plants and oceans). Fund pollutants are not destroyed, but rather converted into less harmful substances, or diluted/dispersed to non-harmful concentrations.

### Notable pollutants

Notable pollutants include the following groups:

## Zones of influence

Pollutants can also be defined by their zones of influence, both horizontally and vertically.

### Horizontal zone

The horizontal zone refers to the area that is damaged by a pollutant. Local pollutants cause damage near the emission source. Regional pollutants cause damage further from the emission source.

### Vertical zone

The vertical zone is referred to whether the damage is ground-level or atmospheric. Surface pollutants cause damage by concentrations of the pollutant accumulating near the Earth's surface Global pollutants cause damage by concentrations in the atmosphere

## Regulation

### International

Pollutants can cross international borders and therefore international regulations are needed for their control. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which entered into force in 2004, is an international legally binding agreement for the control of persistent organic pollutants. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are systems to collect and disseminate information on environmental releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from industrial and other facilities.

### European Union

The European Pollutant Emission Register is a type of PRTR providing access to information on the annual emissions of industrial facilities in the Member States of the European Union, as well as Norway.

### United States

Clean Air Act standards. Under the Clean Air Act, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards developed for outdoor air quality. The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are emission standards that are set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which are not covered by the NAAQS.

Clean Water Act standards. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA promulgated national standards for municipal sewage treatment plants, also called publicly owned treatment works, in the Secondary Treatment Regulation. National standards for industrial dischargers are calledEffluent guidelines(for existing sources) andNew Source Performance Standards, and currently cover over 50 industrial categories. In addition, the Act requires states to publish water quality standards for individual water bodies to provide additional protection where the national standards are insufficient.

RCRA standards. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste, hazardous waste and <

Question:neeedd help despretly gotta finish a project plssssssssssss help

Answers:The best way to prevent land pollution is to recycle. Here are a few other ways you can reduce land pollution: #Reuse any items that you can #Buy biodegradable products #Store all liquid chemicals and waste in spill-proof containers #Eat organic foods that are grown without pesticides #Don t use pesticides #Use a drip tray to collect engine oil #Buy products that have little packaging #Don t dump motor oil on the ground The number one way to prevent air pollution is to walk or bike more and drive less. This will prevent fossil fuels from polluting the air. Here are some other ways to prevent air pollution: *Carpool or join a ride share with friends and coworkers *Don t smoke *Keep your car maintenance up-to-date *If you have to drive, do your errands at one time *Don t buy products that come in aerosol spray cans *Avoid using lighter fluid when barbecuing outside *When you drive accelerate slowly and use cruise control *Always replace your car s air filter *Use a push or electric lawnmower rather than a gas-powered one *Don t use harsh chemical cleaners that can emit fumes *Inspect your gas appliances and heaters regularly The best way to prevent water pollution is to not throw trash and other harmful chemicals into our water supplies. Here are a few more ways you can prevent water pollution: $Wash your car far away from any stormwater drains$Don t throw trash, chemicals or solvents into sewer drains $Inspect your septic system every 3-5 years$Avoid using pesticides and fertilizers that can run off into water systems $Sweep your driveway instead of hosing it down$Always pump your waste-holding tanks on your boat $Use non-toxic cleaning materials$Clean up oil and other liquid spills with kitty litter and sweet them up $Don t wash paint brushes in the sink Question:There's a few questions that I will like to ask: 1. What is the reasons that brings extintion to the marine animals? 2. What is the effect to human if marine animals extint? 3. How to prevent and maintain the life of marine animals? 4. How to plastics affect the marine animals? I hope that you can reply by giving me three or more points for each questions together with the elaboation. Answers:1) Human s folly is the biggest reason why marine animals are brought to the brink of extinction, polluting the sea with oil spills, chemical waste, over harvesting and poachers. A clear example is the critically endangered Leatherback turtles; decades ago they flood the shores of Terengganu with nesting females that drew thousands of tourists. Irresponsible fishermen with their drift nets cast to trap stingrays, inadvertently trap and cause the deaths of these turtles. Adding to the turtles' misfortunes, the turtle eggs were collected by locals to sell in the markets. The locals claim that these eggs have aphrodisiac and beautifying properties although there is no scientific proof for these claims. 2) Human s dietary would definitely be affect; as most people should know DHA and Omega-3 plays a very important role in our lives, it help prevent fatal heart attacks and offer other heart benefits. Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be manufactured in our body and must be obtained daily through our diets. DHA is highly found in fishes like salmon, tuna, sardines and lots more with research suggesting that we can gain lots of health benefit from fish oil alone. Without the fishes we will be facing an ocean of stinky algae, beach closure, coastal flooding and it is even harder to imagine trying to get past those algae and check out what s underneath, a destroyed visual impaired marine eco-system. Well on the sad contradiction, after the extinction of these marine animals, our generations of descendants down the line could probably not have to worry about oil issues anymore. 3) Education and marketing campaign to raise awareness of marine issues to the public is very important to sustain the existence of these life animals. It should be a long term commitment. Not so long ago, Hayden Panettiere put her life on the line to save a pod of dolphins headed for slaughter in Japan, she did it out off sheer love for dolphins but here heroin act was appreciated by the world and I though it would be a good way to raise awareness this way either a show or genuinely (preferred). Her act not only educates world wide fans but most importantly the fans in Japan, the youngster crowd would view it as eating dolphins is wrong and to stop these cruelty if not this generation or the next. I think that beside every countries effort to conservation there is still a necessity in enforcing strict rule to fishing activities. In many Third World Country if only the government would imply just 1 simple rule; under-grown measurement fishes should be set free or else be ready to get FINED. I believe it would create a big impact with a small action like that. 4) Plastic is a non-biodegradable pollutant, they don t rot away but just stays under the seabed waiting to hook a silly fish and suffocate it to death. Plastics could also clog up the engine motors and thus if serious could cause unwanted oil spills. It could also suffocate the coral causing increased reef erosion and freeing up spaces for more algae to grow and fishes to shy. http://elseachng.wordpress.com/ Question:what do you mean ? what do you know about plastic pollution??? Answers:About Plastic Pollution Plastic is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacture of plastics. Synthetic polymers are easily molded into complex shapes, have high chemical resistance, and are more or less elastic. Some can be formed into fibers or thin transparent films. These properties have made them popular in many durable or disposable goods and for packaging materials. These materials have molecular weight ranging from several thousands to 1,50,000. Excessive molecular size seems to be mainly responsible for the resistance of these chemicals to bio-degradation and their persistence in soil environment for a long time. Plastic in the environment is regarded to be more an aesthetic nuisance than a hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. The plastic industry in the US alone is$ 50 billion per year and is obviously a tempting market for biotechnolo gical enterprises. Biotechnological processes are being developed as an alternative to existing route or to get new biodegradable biopolymers . 20% of solid municipal wastes in US is plastic. Non-degradable plastics accumulate at the rate of 25 million tonnes per year. According to an estimate more than 100 million tonnes of plastic is produced every year all over the world. In India it is only 2 million tonnes. In India use of plastic is 2 kg per person per year while in European countries it is 60 kg per pe rson per year while that in US it is 80 kg per person per year Causes Of Plastic Pollution Plastics are used because they are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Unfortunately these same useful qualities can make plastic a huge pollution problem. Because the plastic is cheap it gets discarded easily and its persistence in the environment can do great harm. Urbanisation has added to the plastic pollution in concentrated form in cities. Plastic thrown on land can enter into drainage lines and chokes them resulting into floods in local areas in cities as experienced in Mumbai, India in 1998. It was claimed in one of the programmes on TV Channel that eating plastic bags results in death of 100 cattles per day in U.P. in India. In stomach of one dead cow, as much as 35 kg of plastic was found. Because plastic does not decompose, and requires high energy ultra-violet light to break down, the amount of plastic waste in our oceans is steadily increasing. More than 90% of the articles found on the sea beaches contained plastic. The plastic rubbish found on beaches near urban areas tends to originate from use on land, such as packaging material used to wrap around other goods. On remote rural beaches the rubbish tends to have come from ships, such as fishing equipment used in the fishing industry. This plastic can affect marine wildlife in two important ways: by entangling creatures, and by being eaten. Turtles are particularly badly affected by plastic pollution, and all seven of the world's turtle species are already either endangered or threatened for a number of reasons. Turtles get entangled in fishing nets, and many sea turtles have been found dead with plastic bags in their stomachs.Turtles mistake floating transperent plastic bags for jellyfish and eat them. In one dead turtle found off Hawaii in the Pacific more than 1000 pieces of plastic were found in the stomach. A recent US report concluded that more than 100000 marine mammals die each year in the world's oceans by eating or becoming entangled in plastic rubbish, and the position is worsening World-wide, 75 marine bird species are known to eat plastic articles. This includes 36 species found off South Africa. A recent study of blue petrel chicks at South Africa's remote Marion Island showed that 90% of chicks examined had plastic in their stomachs apparently fed to them accidentally by their parents. South African seabirds are among the worst affected in the world. Plastics may remain in the stomachs, blocking digestion and possibly causing starvation Processing of Bioplastics Presence of nucleating agents (which facilitate crystallization) or the use of plasticiser shortens the processing cycles during the moulding operations. There are two main points about processing of PHBV bioplastics - (i) The limited thermal stability of the polymer and so it degrades rapidly above 195 degree centi. (ii) The need to optimise conditions to allow a maximum crystallization rate (which reduces cycle times). The maximum rate of crystallization is reported to be at about 55-60 degree centi. which is significantly closer to Tg than the Tm. Processing temperatures should not exceed 180 degree centi. and duration of time when the material is in melt state should be kept minimum. At the end of a run the processing equipment should be purged with polyethylene. When blow moulding the blow-pin and the mould should be at about 60 degree centi. to optimise crystallisation rates. Similarly injection moulds are recommended at 55-65 degree centi. The low-hydroxyvalerate, unplasti

Question:I heard that the oil companies are lobbying the government to exclude carbon dioxide from the air pollutants list. If carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, how can the government just ignore it?