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Multiplication table

In mathematics, a multiplication table (sometimes, less formally, a times table) is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system.

The decimal multiplication table was traditionally taught as an essential part of elementary arithmetic around the world, as it lays the foundation for arithmetic operations with our base-ten numbers. Many educators believe it is necessary to memorize the table up to 9 Ã— 9.

In his 1820 book The Philosophy of Arithmetic, mathematician John Leslie published a multiplication table up to 99 Ã— 99, which allows numbers to be multiplied in pairs of digits at a time. Leslie also recommended that young pupils memorize the multiplication table up to 25 Ã— 25.

In 493 A.D., Victorius of Aquitaine wrote a 98-column multiplication table which gave (in Roman numerals) the product of every number from 2 to 50 times and the rows were "a list of numbers starting with one thousand, descending by hundreds to one hundred, then descending by tens to ten, then by ones to one, and then the fractions down to 1/144" (Maher & Makowski 2001, p.383)

The traditional rote learning of multiplication was based on memorization of columns in the table, in a form like

1 Ã— 10 = 10 2 Ã— 10 = 20 3 Ã— 10 = 30 4 Ã— 10 = 40 5 Ã— 10 = 50 6 Ã— 10 = 60 7 Ã— 10 = 70 8 Ã— 10 = 80 9 Ã— 10 = 90

10 x 10 = 100 11 x 10 = 110 12 x 10 = 120 13 x 10 = 130 14 x 10 = 140 15 x 10 = 150 16 x 10 = 160 17 x 10 = 170 18 x 10 = 180 19 x 10 = 190 100 x 10 = 1000

This form of writing the multiplication table in columns with complete number sentences is still used in some countries instead of the modern grid above.

## Patterns in the tables

There is a pattern in the multiplication table that can help people to memorize the table more easily. It uses the figures below:

â†’ â†’ 1 2 3 2 4 â†‘ 4 5 6 â†“ â†‘ â†“ 7 8 9 6 8 â†� â†� 0 0 Fig. 1 Fig. 2

For example, to memorize all the multiples of 7:

1. Look at the 7 in the first picture and follow the arrow.
2. The next number in the direction of the arrow is 4. So think of the next number after 7 that ends with 4, which is 14.
3. The next number in the direction of the arrow is 1. So think of the next number after 14 that ends with 1, which is 21.
4. After coming to the top of this column, start with the bottom of the next column, and travel in the same direction. The number is 8. So think of the next number after 21 that ends with 8, which is 28.
5. Proceed in the same way until the last number, 3, which corresponds to 63.
6. Next, use the 0 at the bottom. It corresponds to 70.
7. Then, start again with the 7. This time it will correspond to 77.
8. Continue like this.

Figure 1 is used for multiples of 1, 3, 7, and 9. Figure 2 is used for the multiples of 2, 4, 6, and 8. These patterns can be used to memorize the multiples of any number from 1 to 9, except 5.

## In abstract algebra

Multiplication tables can also define binary operations on groups, fields, rings, and other algebraic systems. In such contexts they can be called Cayley tables. For an example, see octonion.

## Standards-based mathematics reform in the USA

In 1989, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) developed new standards which were based on the belief that all students should learn higher-order thinking skills, and which recommended reduced emphasis on the teaching of traditional methods that relied on rote memorization, such as multiplication tables. Widely adopted texts such as Investigations in Numbers, Data, and Space (widely known as TERC after its producer, Technical Education Research Centers) omitted aids such as multiplication tables in early editions. It is thought by many that electronic calculators have made it unnecessary or counter-productive to invest time in memorizing the multiplication table. NCTM made it clear in their 2006 Focal Points that basic mathematics facts must be learned, though there is no consensus on whether rote memorization is the best method.

Question:

Answers:x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B 2 2 4 6 8 A 10 12 14 16 18 1A 3 3 6 9 10 13 16 19 20 23 26 29 ... ... A A 18 26 34 42 50 5A 68 76 84 92 B B 1A 29 38 47 56 65 74 83 92 A1

Question:I made a bit of shortcut to get myself answer for getting base 9 multiplication by using base 10 first ex. 4 x 5 = 20 then to make it base 9 what I did was 20/9 = 2.22... then I dropped the decimal and add it to the base 10 answer so 20+2 = 22 HOWEVER this seems to be only applicable up when you multiply by 8 so when I stumbled to an equation higher than 8 x 8, the answer is wrong. so 10 x n, 11 x n etc, I don't know anymore, but I always get decimal of .6 and above using my method so not sure if I could use that unless someone shows me base 9 multiplication table with higher number than 8 x 8 This is the equation I stumbled upon 8 x 12 = 107 I tried my own method but I kept getting 106 unless I round up Oh and I wasn't thought about bases other than 10, so I have to search for the method somehow but its too confusing. Also please don't give me an answer with decimals as that would really confuse me unless its part of the solution and can someone give me an answer to this? 8 x 13, 8 x 14, 8 x 15 all base 9

Answers:Im pretty sure your the guy from a beautiful mind

Question:My sister is just entering grade 5 and needs to practice multiplication as a review. I know there are tables (not boxed charts where you locate two numbers and find where the intersect) that list every multiplication table for numbers 1 - 12: 1x1=1 1x2=2 1x3=3 .....etc where can i find a sheet with all them listed up to 12x12=144 that I can print. I don't want to type them out myself because this would be easier. Thanks :)

Answers:Here you go :)

Question:Having a multiplication table that goes to 6 in both directions (36 numbers total) and these numbers being represented by x whats is the summation of x^2 i=1 and goes to 36

Answers:I believe you are asking for the summation of the squares of all the numbers that appear in a 6x6 multiplication table we can think of this as six different sums: the numbers in the first column are just 1, 2,3, 4, 5, 6 and we square these and add the numbers in the second column are 2x1, 2x2, 2x3... so squaring these and adding should give us four times the result of the first column in the third column, the numbers are 3x1, 3x2, and squaring and adding gives us a result of 9 times the first column the sum of all 36 number is then: [1+4+9+16+25+36][sum of square of first column numbers] = [1+4+9+16+25+36][1+4+9+16+25+36] = [1+4+9+16+25+36]^2 = 91^2 = 8281