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From Wikipedia

Pivot table

In data processing, a pivot table is a data summarization tool found in data visualization programs such as spreadsheets (for example, in Microsoft Excel, OpenOffice.org Calc and Lotus 1-2-3) or business intelligence software. Among other functions, pivot-table tools can automatically sort, count, and total the data stored in one table or spreadsheet and create a second table (called a "pivot table") displaying the summarized data. Pivot tables are also useful for quickly creating unweighted cross tabulations. The user sets up and changes the summary's structure by dragging and dropping fields graphically. This "rotation" or pivoting of the summary table gives the concept its name. The term pivot table is a generic phrase used by multiple vendors. However, Microsoft Corporation has trademarked the specific form PivotTable.

Pivot tables can be seen as a simplification of the more complete and complex OLAP concepts.

History

In their book Pivot Table Data Crunching, authors Bill Jelen and Mike Alexander call Pito Salas the "father of pivot tables". While working on a concept for a new program which would eventually become Lotus Improv, Salas realized that spreadsheets have patterns of data. A tool that could help the user recognize these patterns would help to build advanced data models quickly. With Improv, users could define and store sets of categories, then change views by dragging category names with the mouse. This core functionality would provide the model for pivot tables.

Lotus Development released Improv in 1991 on the NeXT platform. A few months after the release of Improv, Brio Technology published a standalone Mac implementation called DataPivot (with technology patented in 1999). Borland purchased the DataPivot technology in 1992 and implemented it in their own spreadsheet application Quattro Pro.

In 1993, at the time when the Windows version of Improv appeared, Microsoft Excel 5 was already on the market with a new functionality called a “PivotTableâ€�. This functionality was further improved in later Excel versions:

  • Excel 97 included a new and improved PivotTable Wizard, the ability to create calculated fields, and new pivot cache objects that allow developers to code against pivot tables.
  • Excel 2000 introduced “Pivot Chartsâ€� to graphically represent pivot table data.

Explanation of a pivot table

For typical data entry and storage, data usually appear in flat tables, meaning that it consists of only columns and rows, as in the following example showing data on shirt types:

While such data can contain a lot of information, it can be difficult to get summarized information. A pivot table can help quickly summarize the data and highlight the desired information. The usage of a pivot table is extremely broad and depends on the situation. The first question to ask is, "What am I looking for?" In the example here, let us ask, "How many Units did we sell in each Region for every Ship Date?":

A pivot table usually consists of row, column, and data (or fact) fields. In this case, the column is Ship Date, the row is Region, and the data we would like to see is Units. These fields allow several kinds of aggregations including: sum, average, standard deviation, count, etc. In this case, the total number of units shipped is displayed here using a sum aggregation.

How a pivot table works

Using the example above, software will find all distinct records for Region. In this case, they are: North, South, East, West. Furthermore, it will find all distinct records for Ship Date. Based on the aggregation type, sum, it will summarize the fact, and display them in a multidimensional chart. In the example above, the first data point is 66. This number was obtained by finding all records where both Region was East and Ship Date was 1/31/2005, and adding the Units of that collection of records together to get a final result.

Application support

Pivot tables are an integral part of a spreadsheet application. In addition to Microsoft Excel, competing software programs such as OpenOffice.org Calc provide similar functionality; the OpenOffice.org implementation is called DataPilot. Other companies such as numberGo and Quantrix provide similar implementations.

Pivot functionality also operates in other data visualization tools, including business intelligence packages.

Google Docs allows the creation of basic pivot tables, via the pivot table gadget from Panorama, but it provides limited functionality.

As an OLAP client

Excel Pivot Tables includes the feature to directly query an OLAP server for retrieving data instead of getting the data from an Excel spreadsheet. On this configuration a pivot table is a simple client of an OLAP server. Excel's Pivot Table not only allows for connecting to Microsoft's solution (Analysis Service), but to any XMLA (OLAP standard) compliant server.

Other OLAP clients are JPivot, Dundas, IcCube (Client Library).



From Encyclopedia

Acids and Bases ACIDS AND BASES

The name "acid" calls to mind vivid sensory images—of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as with the citric acid in lemons. On the other hand, the thought of laboratory-and industrial-strength substances with scary-sounding names, such as sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, carries with it other ideas—of acids that are capable of destroying materials, including human flesh. The name "base," by contrast, is not widely known in its chemical sense, and even when the older term of "alkali" is used, the sense-impressions produced by the word tend not to be as vivid as those generated by the thought of "acid." In their industrial applications, bases too can be highly powerful. As with acids, they have many household uses, in substances such as baking soda or oven cleaners. From a taste standpoint, (as anyone who has ever brushed his or her teeth with baking soda knows), bases are bitter rather than sour. How do we know when something is an acid or a base? Acid-base indicators, such as litmus paper and other materials for testing pH, offer a means of judging these qualities in various substances. However, there are larger structural definitions of the two concepts, which evolved in three stages during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that provide a more solid theoretical underpinning to the understanding of acids and bases. Prior to the development of atomic and molecular theory in the nineteenth century, followed by the discovery of subatomic structures in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, chemists could not do much more than make measurements and observations. Their definitions of substances were purely phenomenological—that is, the result of experimentation and the collection of data. From these observations, they could form general rules, but they lacked any means of "seeing" into the atomic and molecular structures of the chemical world. The phenomenological distinctions between acids and bases, gathered by scientists from ancient times onward, worked well enough for many centuries. The word "acid" comes from the Latin term acidus, or "sour," and from an early period, scientists understood that substances such as vinegar and lemon juice shared a common acidic quality. Eventually, the phenomenological definition of acids became relatively sophisticated, encompassing such details as the fact that acids produce characteristic colors in certain vegetable dyes, such as those used in making litmus paper. In addition, chemists realized that acids dissolve some metals, releasing hydrogen in the process. The word "alkali" comes from the Arabic al-qili, which refers to the ashes of the seawort plant. The latter, which typically grows in marshy areas, was often burned to produce soda ash, used in making soap. In contrast to acids, bases—caffeine, for example—have a bitter taste, and many of them feel slippery to the touch. They also produce characteristic colors in the vegetable dyes of litmus paper, and can be used to promote certain chemical reactions. Note that today chemists use the word "base" instead of "alkali," the reason being that the latter term has a narrower meaning: all alkalies are bases, but not all bases are alkalies. Originally, "alkali" referred only to the ashes of burned plants, such as seawort, that contained either sodium or potassium, and from which the oxides of sodium and potassium could be obtained. Eventually, alkali came to mean the soluble hydroxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals. This includes sodium hydroxide, the active ingredient in drain and oven cleaners; magnesium hydroxide, used for instance in milk of magnesia; potassium hydroxide, found in soaps and other substances; and other compounds. Broad as this range of substances is, it fails to encompass the wide array of materials known today as bases—compounds which react with acids to form salts and water. The reaction to form salts and water is, in fact, one of the ways that acids and bases can be defined. In an aqueous solution, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form sodium chloride—which, though it is suspended in an aqueous solution, is still common table salt—along with water. The equation for this reaction is HCl(aq ) + NaOH(aq ) →H2O + NaCl(aq ). In other words, the sodium (Na) ion in sodium hydroxide switches places with the hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid, resulting in the creation of NaCl (salt) along with water. But why does this happen? Useful as this definition regarding the formation of salts and water is, it is still not structural—in other words, it does not delve into the molecular structure and behavior of acids and bases. Credit for the first truly structural definition of the difference goes to the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927). It was Arrhenius who, in his doctoral dissertation in 1884, introduced the concept of an ion, an atom possessing an electric charge. His understanding was particularly impressive in light of the fact that it was 13 more years before the discovery of the electron, the subatomic particle responsible for the creation of ions. Atoms have a neutral charge, but when an electron or electrons depart, the atom becomes a positive ion or cation. Similarly, when an electron or electrons join a previously uncharged atom, the result is a negative ion or anion. Not only did the concept of ions greatly influence the future of chemistry, but it also provided Arrhenius with the key necessary to formulate his distinction between acids and bases. Arrhenius observed that molecules of certain compounds break into charged particles when placed in liquid. This led him to the Arrhenius acid-base theory, which defines an acid as any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water, and a base as any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH−) when dissolved in water. This was a good start, but two aspects of Arrhenius's theory suggested the need for a definition that encompassed more substances. First of all, his theory was limited to reactions in aqueous solutions. Though many acid-base reactions do occur when water is the solvent, this is not always the case. Second, the Arrhenius definition effectively limited acids and bases only to those ionic compounds, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide, which produced either hydrogen or hydroxide ions. However, ammonia, or NH3, acts like a base in aqueous solutions, even though it does not produce the hydroxide ion. The same is true of other substances, which behave like acids or bases without conforming to the Arrhenius definition. These shortcomings pointed to the need for a more comprehensive theory, which arrived with the formulation of the Brønsted-Lowry definition by English chemist Thomas Lowry (1874-1936) and Danish chemist J. N. Brønsted (1879-1947). Nonetheless, Arrhenius's theory represented an important first step, and in 1903, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the dissociation of molecules into ions. The Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory defines an acid as a proton (H+) donor, and a base as a proton acceptor, in a chemical reaction. Protons are represented by the symbol H+, and in representing acids and bases, the symbols HA and A−, respectively, are used. These symbols indicate that an acid has a proton it is ready to give away, while a base, with its negative charge, is ready to receive the positively charged proton. Though it is used here to represent a proton, it should be pointed out that H+ is also the hydrogen ion—a hydrogen atom that has lost its sole electron and thus acquired a positive charge. It is thus really nothing more than a lone proton, but this is the one and only case in which an atom and a proton are exactly the same thing. In an acid-base reaction, a molecule of acid is "donating" a proton, in the form of a hydrogen ion. This should not be confused with a far more complex process, nuclear fusion, in which an atom gives up a proton to another atom. The most fundamental type of acid-base reaction in Brønsted-Lowry theory can be symbolized thus HA(aq ) + H2O(l ) →H3O+(aq )


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Can someone please send me a link or a photo of an addition table in base 8 format? Please its urgent and all answers are appreciated. Thank You.

Answers:.. 0.. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 .. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20 .. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21 .. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22 .. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23 .. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24 .. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25 .. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26 . 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27 . 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31 . 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31. 32 . 14. 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31. 32. 33 . 15. 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34 . 16. 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35 . 17. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36 also multiplication: .. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0 .. 0.. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 .. 0.. 2.. 4.. 6. 10. 12. 14. 16. 20. 22. 24. 26. 30. 32. 34. 36 .. 0.. 3.. 6. 11. 14. 17. 22. 25. 30. 33. 36. 41. 44. 47. 52. 55 .. 0.. 4. 10. 14. 20. 24. 30. 34. 40. 44. 50. 54. 60. 64. 70. 74 .. 0.. 5. 12. 17. 24. 31. 36. 43. 50. 55. 62. 67. 74 101 106 113 .. 0.. 6. 14. 22. 30. 36. 44. 52. 60. 66. 74 102 110 116 124 132 .. 0.. 7. 16. 25. 34. 43. 52. 61. 70. 77 106 115 124 133 142 151 .. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 .. 0. 11. 22. 33. 44. 55. 66. 77 110 121 132 143 154 165 176 207 .. 0. 12. 24. 36. 50. 62. 74 106 120 132 144 156 170 202 214 226 .. 0. 13. 26. 41. 54. 67 102 115 130 143 156 171 204 217 232 245 .. 0. 14. 30. 44. 60. 74 110 124 140 154 170 204 220 234 250 264 .. 0. 15. 32. 47. 64 101 116 133 150 165 202 217 234 251 266 303 .. 0. 16. 34. 52. 70 106 124 142 160 176 214 232 250 266 304 322 .. 0. 17. 36. 55. 74 113 132 151 170 207 226 245 264 303 322 341

Question:the following two numbers are in base 8 436 537 I want to add it and want to get the result in base 8. is there any direct process without converting into decimal ? i dont want to convert these into decimal

Answers:in base 10 the numbers go like this 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, then 10,11,12, and so on. In base 8 the numbers go like this 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7, then 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,20,and so on. because in base 8 you don't include the 8. in base 5 it would look like 0,1,2,3,4, then 10. so if you add 436+537 in base 8 it would be like this 436 +437= 1175 So the answer is 1175 This is how i got that. If you add 7+6 in base 8 it would be like this. 7+1=10, 7+2=11, 7+3=12, 7+4=13, 7+5=14, 7+6=15 so 7+6 in base 8 equals 15 therefore you carry the 1 over. So it would be 4+3 in base 8 because i carried the 1 over and that would equal 7 and finally 4+4 in base 8 equals 11 if you add them up by ones you will see.

Question:i want to add 444 base 8 with 654 base 8? cn sum1 pls xplain wat to do??

Answers:You add them as in base 10 but carry forward multiples of 8 instead of multiples of 10. In other words, 8 (in base 10) equals 10 (in base 8). Start at right and move left as usual. 4 + 4 = 10 (to base 8) so write down 0 and carry 1. 4 + 5 + 1 = 12 (to base 8) so write down 2 and carry 1. 4 + 6 + 1 = 13 (to base 8) so write down 3 and carry 1 So final answer = 1320 (to base 8).

Question:I have a big round glass table top about 4.5-5 feet across. I'm looking for some creative ideas for a base, outside of the normal furniture store base. thanks.

Answers:Large plant pots always look cool. You could turn them up side down and just put a centerpiece over the glass so you don't see the drainage hole on the bottom of the pot. This site sells many different styles. http://www.plantcontainers.com/b2-039.php You could go round or square for a more modern look, and even paint them for a more dramatic effect. Cheers- Denise

From Youtube

Subtraction By Addition (3 of 5) :Constructing a subtraction table.

everyday minerals: choosing a base color & additional tips :side by side comparison of the following colors: first row on arm ... 1) medium beige summer 2) medium beige neutral 3) buttered tan 4) olive medium 5) linen 2nd row ... 6) light tan 7) winged butter 8) beige neutral 9) light neutral in addition, i have included tips and techniques on how to choose the right formulas / shades and organizational tips i use at home. enjoy!