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axial and appendicular skeleton

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From Wikipedia

Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. It is composed of five parts; the human skull, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone of the throat, the rib cage, and the vertebral column. The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton together form the complete skeleton and the sternum.


Flat bones house the brain, spinal cord, and other vital organs. This article mainly deals with the axial skeletons of humans; however, it is important to understand the evolutionary lineage of the axial skeleton. The human axial skeleton consists of 80 different bones. It is the central core of the body and where the appendicular skeleton attaches. As the skeleton grows older the bones get weaker with the exception of the skull. The skull remains strong to protect the brain from injuring


The word "Axial" is taken from the word "axis" and refers to the fact that the bones are located close to or along the central axis of the body.


Skull (22)

  • Cranial Bones (8)
    • Parietal (2)
    • Temporal (2)
    • Frontal (1)
    • Occipital (1)
    • Ethmoid (1)
    • Sphenoid (1)
    • Facial Bones (14)
    • Maxilla (2)
    • Zygomatic (2)
    • Mandible (1)
    • Nasal (2)
    • Palatine (2)
    • Inferior nasal concha (2)
    • Lacrimal (2)
    • Vomer (1)

Auditory Ossicles

Ossicles (6 )

  • Malleus (2)
  • Incus (2)
  • Stapes (2)

Hyoid bone

Hyoid bone (1) U-shape bone located in the neck. It anchors the tongue and is associated with swallowing.

Vertebral column

Vertebral Column (26)

  • Cervical vertebrae (7)
  • Thoracic vertebrae (12)
  • Lumbar vertebrae (5)
  • Sacrum (1) (they are 5 but fused in adult stage)
  • Coccyx (1) (they are 4 but fused to form one single bone, varies between 3-5)


Thoracic cage (25)

  • Sternum (1)
  • Ribs (24)

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Its for an overlay most of the pictures i found do not have all thew bones axial and appendicular labeled on them


Question:I am working on my BODY SYSTEM packet right now and i have run across a few questons i don't know i don't expect you to answer all of them. But PLEASE ANSWER WHAT YOU KNOW, IT WOULD HELP OUT SO MUCH :) Short Answer Questions. 1. List the four basic types of tissue in the human body, describe their function and give examples of where they are found. 2. List and describe the levels of organization for the human body. 3. What makes up the appendicular and axial skeleton? 4. What are the functions of the skin 5. Compare and contrast veins, arteries and capillaries. 6. Discuss why cigarette smoke is dangerous.

Answers:Is that all? Let's go backwards with it. Well, cigarette smoke is dangerous, not only because of nicotine which has been shown to be 1 of about 599 additives in cigarettes. Are you worried about infestations of mosquitoes in your lungs? Or are you worried about how your lungs smell? Do they not taste well enough? Those lung buds need variety, don't they? They get tired of that same 'ol smell. Wait? It's not the lungs that smell; it's the nose. That gets into the airborne particles. Have you ever studied the layout of the alveoli in your lungs; the air sacs, the lung buds? Each breath you take fills hundreds of air sacs. Each one of those hundreds of air sacs are surrounded by intertwining capillaries where the veins and arteries meet and the CO2 is taken out and the O2 is put in. If you have toxic chemicals in the air, that's where the majority gets in. Have you ever cleaned the room of a long-time smoker? Sort of helps with the smell and the stains. But, the smoker has to unconsciously battle with that everywhere they go. What is in those stains? Probably everything that was in those cigarettes. And it is covering the smoker. If they wore clothes, now, it would be on their hands, arms, and face. Probably everywhere else too; you know people. That gets into the function of the skin besides being an elastic layer surrounding and containing the muscles covering the bone structure. But, did you know that it contains the 3rd circulatory system in your body, the lymph system. Without the lymph system, any substance absorbed by the skin that was toxic to your system may end up killing you because the skin is the first defense from the outside. It is the first defense against ultraviolet light from the sun. And it seems like Cigarette smoking is a mental confusion in the purpose of the appendicular skeleton to provide locomotion for the axial skeleton which houses the organs. The confusion has arisen because in the other uses for the appendicular skeleton which are to provide nourishment and entertainment, it has been mentally recorded that cigarettes provide the needed ammunition against mosquitoes. And we don't want to breathe in those little critters. They make you cough and your nose itch. But, I guess that leads into the organization of the body, like 'who's on first.' Is it the body first or the mind first, which organization has control? That gets into addiction though. With everything you have checks and balances, like 'Did this movement by the appendicular skeleton serve the purpose of survival of the organs held inside the axial skeleton?' Inside this axial skeleton is 2 centers of being, the heart and the brain. The upper brain is supplied by the lower heart but they both are separated by their own charges. Separating these centers from the supplying the nutrients and cleaning the system is the peritoneum which is held in place by the second type of tissue, connective tissue . Inside this peritoneum are organs covered by the third type which is the muscular tissue that causes force and contraction. But, none of the systems within the body would be able to coordinate and synchronize with any other system without the nervous tissue, the fourth type of tissue. From that ball that sits atop the structure in between the shoulder blades comes a series of electrical charges that travel along this nervous tissue down the spine and throughout the body and back again to keep the body in homeostasis. All of this happens inside of a wonderful system surrounded by the first type of tissue, the epithelial tissue, the skin.


Answers:yes there are 206 bones in the adult human body. the axial skeleton (the trunk of our body) and the appendicular skeleton (our limbs).. the smallest is the stirrup bone located in the upper ear and the largest is the hip bone.

Question:What is true of all joints? A.They occur where two bones meet. B.They provide limited movement. C.They include a ligament. D.They provide a place for muscle to attach. 2.Which of the following is found both outside bones in the periosteum and inside compact bones in the Haversian canals? A.Calcium-rich rings B.Red bone marrow C.Blood vessels D.Connective tissue 3.Which characteristic describes compact bone? A.Produces blood cells B.Consists of calcified rings C.Cradles bone marrow D.Manufactures calcitonin 4.What are the two types of bone tissue? A.Compact and spongy B.Compact and stringy C.Expanded and stony D.Expanded and spongy 5.Which of the following is NOT a function of bones? A.Provide support B.Produce minerals C.Protect internal organs D.Produce blood cells 6.Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by A.actin fibers. B.tendons. C.filaments. D.myofibrils. 7.Which characteristic describes smooth muscle? A.Found in the intestines B.Under voluntary control C.Has multi-nucleated cells D.Uses a great deal of ATP 8.What is the term that describes the unit of a muscle cell that contains all of the structures necessary to cause contraction? A.Sarcomere B.Ca2+ ion C.Filament D.Myofibril 9.What is the main function of Ca? A.Enhancing the effect of neurotransmitters that trigger movement B.Stimulating neurons to use ATP to break the actin-myosin bond C.Binding to regulatory proteins to expose actin binding sites D.Allowing myosin filaments to move faster towards actin filaments 10.Which best describes the role of myosin during muscle contraction? A.Loosens proteins B.Binds Ca2+ ions C.Pulls the M line D.Grabs the actin 11.Which is an example of how your integumentary system helps you to maintain homeostasis? A.By producing sweat to cool your body B.By pushing waste through the intestines C.By regulating production of blood cells D.By delivering unbound calcium to the bones 12.Which of the following parts of your body is made up of keratin? A.Skin B.Hair C.Bone D.Nerves 13.The epidermis layer of your skin contains A.sweat glands. B.hair follicles. C.nerves. D.dead skin cells. 14.Which of the following is an example of how melanin protects the skin? A.By building up in thick layers B.By stopping fungi from growing C.By absorbing harmful UV rays D.By allowing the skin to stretch 15.Which of these structures is found in the dermis? A.Sweat and oil glands B.Primarily dead cells C.Keratin and melanin D.Insulating fat layers 16.What is the connective tissue that cushions your bones and enables smooth movements of the skeletal system? A.Ligament B.Spongy bone C.Muscle D.Cartilage 17.Which bone is part of your axial skeleton? A.Thigh bone B.Breastbone C.Ankle bone D.Finger bone 18.Your appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones in your arms and A.ribs. B.spine. C.skull. D.legs. 19. Identify the type of joint shown in Figure 33.1. A.Fibrous B.Saddle C.Pivot D.Hinge 20.Which type of joint allows your knee to bend? A.Hinge B.Gliding C.Pivot D.Saddle 21.One function of spongy bone is to A.protect bone marrow. B.support the body's weight. C.build bone from osteocytes. D.create calcium-rich rings. 22.What is the term for a long, flexible band of connective tissue that connects two bones across a joint? A.Ligament B.Tendon C.Cartilage D.Keratin 23.The involuntary muscle that moves food through the digestive system is called A.skeletal muscle. B.striated muscle. C.smooth muscle. D.cardiac muscle. 24.Suppose you are shivering. What body system is working to increase your body's temperature? A.Muscular B.Nervous C.Skeletal D.Integumentary 25. What type of muscle is shown in Figure 33.2? A.Skeletal B.Smooth C.Cardiac D.Vertebral

Answers:1.a 2.c 3.b 4.a 5.b 6.b 7.a 8.a 9.c 10.d 11.a 12.b 13.d 14.a 15.c 16.d 17.b 18.d 19.b 20.a 21.a 22.a 23.c 24.a 25.a

From Youtube

Part 1- AXIAL SKELETON :All the video clips are already uploaded until Part 8 since yesterday just find some of my upload videos here at my account.

Spinal Anatomy Animation :How does your spine work? This straightforward video animation provides a clear picture of the inner workings and mechanics of this vital part of your body. Video Transcript The spine is a column of bones that forms the axial skeleton; this framework provides strong, yet flexible support for the trunk of the body as well as protection for the delicate spinal cord housed within it. The spine consists of 33 vertebrae stacked vertically upon each other. The vertebrae are connected by facet joints at the back of the spine. These joints allow movement between the bones of the spine. The vertebrae are stabilized by ligaments and, most importantly, are separated by an intervertebral disc between each vertebra, which functions as a shock absorber. The vertebrae can be classified into five segments. These segments include 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 fused sacral vertebrae, and 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae. The spinal cord runs through a canal located at the back of the vertebrae, and extends from the brain stem to the lumbar region of the spine. Nerves branch out from the spinal cord, sending messages for movement and body functions to the rest of the body. The anatomical shape of the adult spine also contains four basic curvatures. The thoracic and sacral regions are concave anteriorly, while the cervical and lumbar regions are concave posteriorly. This unique shape of the spine allows it to support the weight of the human body.