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A symbol is something such as an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On maps, crossed sabres may indicate a battlefield. Numerals are symbols for numbers (amounts). All language consists of symbols. Personal names are symbols representing individuals.
Psychoanalysis and archetypes
Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who studied archetypes, proposed an alternative definition of symbol, distinguishing it from the term sign. In Jung's view, a sign stands for something known, as a word stands for its referent. He contrasted this with symbol, which he used to stand for something that is unknown and that cannot be made clear or precise. An example of a symbol in this sense isChrist as a symbol of the archetype called self. For example, written languages are composed of a variety of different symbols that create words. Through these written words, humans communicate with each other.Kenneth Burke described Homo sapiensas a "symbol-using, symbol making, and symbol misusing animal" to indicate that a person creates symbols in her or his life as well as misuses them. One example he uses to indicate his meaning behind symbol misuse is the story of a man who, when told a particular food item was whale blubber, could barely keep from throwing it up. Later, his friend discovered it was actually just a dumpling. But the man's reaction was a direct consequence of the symbol of "blubber" representing something inedible in his mind. In addition, the symbol of "blubber" for the man was created by him through various kinds of learning. Burke emphasizes that humans gain this type of learning that helps us create symbols by seeing various print sources, our life experiences, and symbols about the past.
Burke also goes on to describe symbols as also being derived from Sigmund Freud's work on condensation and displacement further stating that they are not just relevant to the theory of dreams, but also to "normal symbol systems". He says they are related through "substitution" where one word, phrase, or symbol is substituted for another in order to change the meaning. In other words, if a person does not understand a certain word or phrase, another person may substitute a synonym or symbol in order to get the meaning of the original word or phrase across. However, when faced with that new way of interpreting a specific symbol, a person may change their already formed ideas to incorporate the new information based on how the symbol is expressed to the person.
The word symbol came to the English language by way of Middle English, from Old French, from Latin, from the GreekÏƒÏ�Î¼Î²Î¿Î»Î¿Î½ (sÃ½mbolon) from the root words ÏƒÏ…Î½- (syn-), meaning "together," and Î²Î¿Î»Î® (bolÄ“), "a throw", having the approximate meaning of "to throw together", literally a "co-incidence", also "sign, ticket, or contract". The earliest attestation of the term is in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes where Hermes on seeing the tortoise exclaims ÏƒÏ�Î¼Î²Î¿Î»Î¿Î½ á¼¤Î´Î· Î¼Î¿Î¹ Î¼ÎÎ³á¾½ á½€Î½Î®ÏƒÎ¹Î¼Î¿Î½ "symbolon [symbol/sign/portent/encounter/chance find?] of joy to me!" before turning it into a lyre.
Role of context in symbolism
This history of a symbol is one of many factors in determining a particular symbol's apparent meaning. Old symbols become reinterpreted, due perhaps to environmental changes. Consequently, symbols with emotive power carry problems analogous to false etymologies.
North West Arrow, , Downwards Arrow With Tip Leftwards .... Up Down Arrow With Base, , Rightwards Arrow Over Leftwards Arrow, , Leftwards Dashed Arrow ...
A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a face-off in ice hockey or ball-up in Australian rules football. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed up into the air in between them by an official.
In the NBA, a jump ball occurs at the start of the game (called the opening tip), the start of any extra period, to settle special situations where penalties cancel out and neither team is previously entitled to the ball, and to settle any held balls. Held balls occur when two opposing players both lay equal claim to the ball, and after trying to wrestle it from each other, end up in a stalemate. A jump ball may also be called if there are different calls by two or more referees.
However, most competitions other than the NBA use the alternating possession rule to settle all jump ball situations after the opening tip. This uses a possession arrow on the scorekeeper's table. Whenever such a jump ball situation occurs, the team whose basket that the possession arrow is currently pointing to gets the ball. The arrow then swaps to point to the other team. At the start of the game, the arrow points to the team that lost the opening tip.
The alternating possession arrow rule went into effect in college basketball in 1981. Ever since, it has been controversial. Supporters of the possession arrow believe that jump balls give the team with taller players and better leapers an unfair advantage over the other, plus the possession arrow (especially in the NCAA Tournament) gives another element of strategy. But those who oppose the possession arrow believe that it has frequently undone a trailing team's defensive effort because it is the other team's turn to get the ball.
The International Basketball Federation, with recommendation by NCAA Men's Supervisor of Officials Hank Nichols, on the FIBA World Technical Commission at the time, adopted the alternating possession rule in 2003, with a major difference. In overtime periods, play begins with the arrow. In other organizations, another jump ball is conducted.
FIBA mandated that the Union of European Basketball Leagues (ULEB), the conductor of the Euroleague and ULEB Cup, adopt the FIBA rule in 2005 as part of FIBA sanctioning the Euroleague effective the 2005-06 season. Previously, the ULEB used the NBA jump ball rules.
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Answers:The up arrow means the product is a gas. The down arrow means the product is a precipitate.
Answers:Does it look like this & ? If so it's called an Ampersand and means "and" basically.
Answers:I'm not sure how Facebook works, but many email/messaging programs use such designations as those arrows to remind you that you either replied to that message or forwarded the message to someone else. The "arrow" will look different depending on if it was a reply or a forward...if you just read the message and took no action, there should be no arrow at all.
Answers:it sounds like a protection ring. Im not 100% sure but it sounds like someone was into runes and ancient egyptian symbols. I have a rune of Tyr on my arm, so that is what makes me think it is some sort of protection ring.