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From Wikipedia


A symbol is something such as an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On maps, crossed sabres may indicate a battlefield. Numerals are symbols for numbers (amounts). All language consists of symbols. Personal names are symbols representing individuals.

Psychoanalysis and archetypes

Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who studied archetypes, proposed an alternative definition of symbol, distinguishing it from the term sign. In Jung's view, a sign stands for something known, as a word stands for its referent. He contrasted this with symbol, which he used to stand for something that is unknown and that cannot be made clear or precise. An example of a symbol in this sense isChrist as a symbol of the archetype called self. For example, written languages are composed of a variety of different symbols that create words. Through these written words, humans communicate with each other.Kenneth Burke described Homo sapiensas a "symbol-using, symbol making, and symbol misusing animal" to indicate that a person creates symbols in her or his life as well as misuses them. One example he uses to indicate his meaning behind symbol misuse is the story of a man who, when told a particular food item was whale blubber, could barely keep from throwing it up. Later, his friend discovered it was actually just a dumpling. But the man's reaction was a direct consequence of the symbol of "blubber" representing something inedible in his mind. In addition, the symbol of "blubber" for the man was created by him through various kinds of learning. Burke emphasizes that humans gain this type of learning that helps us create symbols by seeing various print sources, our life experiences, and symbols about the past.

Burke also goes on to describe symbols as also being derived from Sigmund Freud's work on condensation and displacement further stating that they are not just relevant to the theory of dreams, but also to "normal symbol systems". He says they are related through "substitution" where one word, phrase, or symbol is substituted for another in order to change the meaning. In other words, if a person does not understand a certain word or phrase, another person may substitute a synonym or symbol in order to get the meaning of the original word or phrase across. However, when faced with that new way of interpreting a specific symbol, a person may change their already formed ideas to incorporate the new information based on how the symbol is expressed to the person.


The word symbol came to the English language by way of Middle English, from Old French, from Latin, from the Greekσ�μβολον (sýmbolon) from the root words συν- (syn-), meaning "together," and βολή (bolē), "a throw", having the approximate meaning of "to throw together", literally a "co-incidence", also "sign, ticket, or contract". The earliest attestation of the term is in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes where Hermes on seeing the tortoise exclaims σ�μβολον ἤδη μοι μέγ᾽ ὀνήσιμον "symbolon [symbol/sign/portent/encounter/chance find?] of joy to me!" before turning it into a lyre.

Role of context in symbolism

A symbol's meaning may be modified by various factors including popular usage, history, and contextual intent.

Historical meaning

This history of a symbol is one of many factors in determining a particular symbol's apparent meaning. Old symbols become reinterpreted, due perhaps to environmental changes. Consequently, symbols with emotive power carry problems analogous to false etymologies.

For example, the Rebel Flag of the American South predates the American Civil War. An early variant of the crossed bars resembled the Scottish Flag.


Juxtaposition further complicates the matter. Similar five–pointed stars might signify a law enforcement officer or a member of the armed services, depending the uniform.

Arrow (symbol) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

North West Arrow, , Downwards Arrow With Tip Leftwards .... Up Down Arrow With Base, , Rightwards Arrow Over Leftwards Arrow, , Leftwards Dashed Arrow ...

Jump ball

A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a face-off in ice hockey or ball-up in Australian rules football. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed up into the air in between them by an official.

In the NBA, a jump ball occurs at the start of the game (called the opening tip), the start of any extra period, to settle special situations where penalties cancel out and neither team is previously entitled to the ball, and to settle any held balls. Held balls occur when two opposing players both lay equal claim to the ball, and after trying to wrestle it from each other, end up in a stalemate. A jump ball may also be called if there are different calls by two or more referees.

However, most competitions other than the NBA use the alternating possession rule to settle all jump ball situations after the opening tip. This uses a possession arrow on the scorekeeper's table. Whenever such a jump ball situation occurs, the team whose basket that the possession arrow is currently pointing to gets the ball. The arrow then swaps to point to the other team. At the start of the game, the arrow points to the team that lost the opening tip.

The alternating possession arrow rule went into effect in college basketball in 1981. Ever since, it has been controversial. Supporters of the possession arrow believe that jump balls give the team with taller players and better leapers an unfair advantage over the other, plus the possession arrow (especially in the NCAA Tournament) gives another element of strategy. But those who oppose the possession arrow believe that it has frequently undone a trailing team's defensive effort because it is the other team's turn to get the ball.

The International Basketball Federation, with recommendation by NCAA Men's Supervisor of Officials Hank Nichols, on the FIBA World Technical Commission at the time, adopted the alternating possession rule in 2003, with a major difference. In overtime periods, play begins with the arrow. In other organizations, another jump ball is conducted.

FIBA mandated that the Union of European Basketball Leagues (ULEB), the conductor of the Euroleague and ULEB Cup, adopt the FIBA rule in 2005 as part of FIBA sanctioning the Euroleague effective the 2005-06 season. Previously, the ULEB used the NBA jump ball rules.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:alright I have some chemistry definitions, and 2 of the definitions i have to find are of an up arrow and a down arrow. i know of the yield sign already but haven't any clue of the other arrows. help? the 2 arrows are 2 separate definitions.

Answers:The up arrow means the product is a gas. The down arrow means the product is a precipitate.

Question:I am looking for the origin and meaning of a particular symbol. The symbol resembles the number 8 with a vertical line dividing it in half with arrow heads on each end pointing up and down. The right side of the upper loop of the 8 is open. This symbol is similar to the $ sign except the bottom loop is closed and the arrow heads on each end of the straight line. Please help. It is the only one of the group I cannot find. Thanks LuvJo I am looking for the origin and meaning of a particular symbol. The symbol resembles the number 8 with a vertical line dividing it in half with arrow heads on each end pointing up and down. The right side of the upper loop of the 8 is open. This symbol is similar to the $ sign except the bottom loop is closed and the arrow heads on each end of the straight line. Please help. It is the only one of the group I cannot find. This is not an & - there is a vertical line with arrows included. This is not a G cleff - there are arrows on each end. Thanks LuvJo

Answers:Does it look like this & ? If so it's called an Ampersand and means "and" basically.

Question:I never really paid any attention to this, but I'm just curious. Some of my messages have this gray arrow and some don't. Does it mean the person I sent it to has not read it yet? Or does it mean I was the last person to send them a message? I did Google it but that was pretty useless. Ok...thanks for clearing that up!! I understand it now. :)

Answers:I'm not sure how Facebook works, but many email/messaging programs use such designations as those arrows to remind you that you either replied to that message or forwarded the message to someone else. The "arrow" will look different depending on if it was a reply or a forward...if you just read the message and took no action, there should be no arrow at all.

Question:i inherited a ring recently, and found this U7 on the inside and nearby jewelers didn't know either. could someone help me in my research please?

Answers:it sounds like a protection ring. Im not 100% sure but it sounds like someone was into runes and ancient egyptian symbols. I have a rune of Tyr on my arm, so that is what makes me think it is some sort of protection ring.

From Youtube

THE CIRCLE SYMBOL PART 1 OF 2.AVI :And.Hello and Welcome to Astro Prep Future-keys Productions Today our subject; concerns an Understanding Of the basic Symbols The Cross, The Circle; The Semi-Circle & The Arrow Our present subject; the Circle is one of the Four basic forms used within the structures of the Zodiac Signs and also the Planetary Energies. It is important to note; our present symbolic design is the Circle. This symbolic reference expresses that a circle is a point of opposites in proportion Any line that passes though the center of a circle or segment and is completed by the circle is called a diameter of the circle So a diameter is any line segment that passes though the center of a circle. And a segment is that measurement of a line between any two points on the line. A cord is any straight line that is blocked or intercepted by the circle. A Radius is a section of a line from the center of the circle to the perimeter of the circle. A Perimeter is a close curb or circle which is synonyms with a circumference of a circle. A circumference is a boundary line of the circle. A Arc is a measured part of a circle, shown between points on the circle. A central angle is an angle with the vertex or (high point) apex or summit at the center of the circle and with its sides forming a Radius. This means a line segment that joins the center of a circle with any point on its circumference of a circle. A Central Angle is opposite that of a fix pr on the circle by the Arc that exist between the points at ...

The Hex - Star of David - Six Pointed Star - SYMBOL STAR OF YOUR GOD... [1of 2] :www.youtube.com The first mention of the star was in Amos 5:26 regarding the trek from Egypt to Canaan. Then in 922 BC, when Solomon married the daughter of Pharoah and went into magic and witchcraft and built an altar to Ashtoroth and Moloch. The book traces the six pointed star from Egypt to Solomon, to Arab Magic and Witchcraft, to Druid use(references are documented). The book traces the star through Freemasonry usage to Mayer Amschel Bauer, who, in the 17th century, changed his name to depict the red six-pointed star (or shield) which he had hung on his door in Germany, and thus began the family of "Red Shield" or Rothschild. The research carried on through this family, to their court of arms, to Cabala, to Astrology, to Hitler and his putting a yellow six-pointed star on all Jews during the holocaust, to the Zionist symbol, and finally to the flag of the State of Israel and beyond www.freemasonrywatch.org Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn The HEXAGRAM is used in occultist Aleister Crowley's "ritual of the BEAST." (Aleister Crowley: Magic Book #4) Israel Regardie reveals that the "HEXAGRAMS OF SATURN" are used in his magical initiation rites. (Regardie, p. 288) Emblem of the Theosophical Society Freemasonry "If the two lateral lines of the STAR OF DAVID are removed, leaving the upward and downward pointing arrows...the result is the Freemason's square and compass." (Knight, p. 240) Brief History of the Hexagram or Six Pointed Star Acts 7:37-43 This is that Moses...to ...