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Question:Water flowing out of a horizontal pipe emerges through a nozzle. The radius of the pipe is 1.9 cm, and the radius of the nozzle is 0.47 cm. The speed of the water in the pipe is 0.59 m/s. Treat the water as an ideal fluid, and determine the absolute pressure of the water in the pipe.
Answers:ok we first need to find the exit velocity of the water on the nozzle of the pipe: A1 * V1 = A2 * V2 , which means the initial area times the initial velocity must equal the final area times the final velocity so: the area of a circle is pi * R so A1 = pi * (1.9) = 11.341 cm A3 = pi * (0.47) = 0.693 cm so now using the equation the exit velocity is: 11.341 * 0.59 = 0.693 * V2 V2 = 9.620 m/s ok now we need to use Bernoulli's equation to figure out the pressure in the pipe: (note that the heights of the start and end of the pipe is the same so you can cancel the part of the formula that has to do with it) P1 + (1/2) * * (V1) = P2 + (1/2) * * (V2) where: P1 is the pressure in the beginning is the density of the liquid V1 is the initial velocity P2 is the final pressure and V2 is the final velocity so: (water density is 1000 kg / m^3 so = 1) P1 + (1/2) * 1000 * 0.59 = P2 + (1/2) * 1000 * 9.620 P1  P2 = (1/2) * 1000 * 9.620  (1/2) * 1000 * 0.59 P1  P2 = 46272  174.05 P1  P2 = 46097.95 Pascal hope i helped and good luck :)
Answers:ok we first need to find the exit velocity of the water on the nozzle of the pipe: A1 * V1 = A2 * V2 , which means the initial area times the initial velocity must equal the final area times the final velocity so: the area of a circle is pi * R so A1 = pi * (1.9) = 11.341 cm A3 = pi * (0.47) = 0.693 cm so now using the equation the exit velocity is: 11.341 * 0.59 = 0.693 * V2 V2 = 9.620 m/s ok now we need to use Bernoulli's equation to figure out the pressure in the pipe: (note that the heights of the start and end of the pipe is the same so you can cancel the part of the formula that has to do with it) P1 + (1/2) * * (V1) = P2 + (1/2) * * (V2) where: P1 is the pressure in the beginning is the density of the liquid V1 is the initial velocity P2 is the final pressure and V2 is the final velocity so: (water density is 1000 kg / m^3 so = 1) P1 + (1/2) * 1000 * 0.59 = P2 + (1/2) * 1000 * 9.620 P1  P2 = (1/2) * 1000 * 9.620  (1/2) * 1000 * 0.59 P1  P2 = 46272  174.05 P1  P2 = 46097.95 Pascal hope i helped and good luck :)
Question:This is regarding to the application of heat transfer in earth cooling tube where pipes run underground and air is flowed in it so the air temperature will be near to the soil temperature. it is use for heating as well as cooling for buildings.
Answers:It is all about the ratio of the surface area of the pipe to the volume inside the pipe. Think about the formulas for a cylinder. The surface area is proportional to the radius, but the volume is proportional to the square of the radius. So as you make the pipe larger, the surface doesn't increase as fast as the volume. Lets do an example of a pipe one mile long. If the pipe was six inches in diameter, the volume is 1037 cu ft and the surface area is 8293 sq ft. If you use 1 ft diameter pipe, the volume is4147 cu ft and the surface area is 16578 sq ft. So you doubled your surface area, but your volume went up by 4 times. You could have put in four 6inch pipes to carry the same volume and had twice the surface area (33172 sq ft) for heat transfer as the 1 ft diameter pipe. so you will probably ask why we don't go to tinier and tinier pipes. You must also consider the friction loss in the pipe. Also consider the effects of stratification. If the pipe is too large, then the fluid inside starts to stratify and the fluid near the pipe wall cools compared to the average temperature of the fluid. This lowers the heat transfer out of the pipe. Good Luck
Answers:It is all about the ratio of the surface area of the pipe to the volume inside the pipe. Think about the formulas for a cylinder. The surface area is proportional to the radius, but the volume is proportional to the square of the radius. So as you make the pipe larger, the surface doesn't increase as fast as the volume. Lets do an example of a pipe one mile long. If the pipe was six inches in diameter, the volume is 1037 cu ft and the surface area is 8293 sq ft. If you use 1 ft diameter pipe, the volume is4147 cu ft and the surface area is 16578 sq ft. So you doubled your surface area, but your volume went up by 4 times. You could have put in four 6inch pipes to carry the same volume and had twice the surface area (33172 sq ft) for heat transfer as the 1 ft diameter pipe. so you will probably ask why we don't go to tinier and tinier pipes. You must also consider the friction loss in the pipe. Also consider the effects of stratification. If the pipe is too large, then the fluid inside starts to stratify and the fluid near the pipe wall cools compared to the average temperature of the fluid. This lowers the heat transfer out of the pipe. Good Luck
Question:The pipe is 2" copper, the water pressure varies between 80100 psi. What is the maximum gallon(UK)per minute i can expect?
Answers:volume rate=area*velocity Area=pi*radius^2 Area=3.14*1^2 Area=3.14 in^2 velocity=sqrt[2*g*h], [It is an approximation] where h=head g=acceleration due to gravity Volume rate =3.14*{sqrt[2.g.h]} ,where radius=1 inch.(inside radius) so, the volume depends on head. pressure=specific gravity*head head=100/sp. gravity of water. So, the volume rate =3.14*{sqrt[2.g.(100/sp. gravity of water)]} ,use the same system of unit.
Answers:volume rate=area*velocity Area=pi*radius^2 Area=3.14*1^2 Area=3.14 in^2 velocity=sqrt[2*g*h], [It is an approximation] where h=head g=acceleration due to gravity Volume rate =3.14*{sqrt[2.g.h]} ,where radius=1 inch.(inside radius) so, the volume depends on head. pressure=specific gravity*head head=100/sp. gravity of water. So, the volume rate =3.14*{sqrt[2.g.(100/sp. gravity of water)]} ,use the same system of unit.
Question:Pipe bomb effective range?
Whats the effective range of a pipe bomb filled with Hodgdon Pyrodex black powder, and about 25 ball bearings. at what range would the explosion be innevective, and then the ball bearings be innefective? This is for antipersonal.
I will not be actually creating this for usage, but wanting to learn a little about them, we've ben having cases in my area of people using them in trash cans, when you open the lid, it would blow.
Answers:Pyrodex is not a good choice for an explosive compound. It takes an extraordinarily hot igniter to set the stuff off  which is why I never use Pyrodex in my smokepoles. Several of my acquaintances who hunt with smokepoles and take them to the range have tried Pyrodex in their flintlocks  and discovered it simply won't work with that ignition system. For building a pipe bomb  and for gosh sakes what nitwit would want to do that  one would use plain ol' 1f or 2f black powder. Experience tells us that the effectiveness of a crude bomb such as you describe varies remarkably. Not only does it depend on the size of the device, but on where it's put and what surrounds it. Let's just give one example of the effectiveness of a black powder bomb, using a metering device that measures the force of the blast at a known distance. 25 pounds of black powder is placed in a simple wooden box and detonated in an open field. The recording device measures a blast force of "x" pounds. Then a second box with the same amount of black powder is placed in a trash can and the lid placed on the can, and that device detonated. The metering device records a higher blast force than the first time. Then yet another box with the same amount of black powder is detonated inside a closed building, and the metering device records an even greater blast than the previous two. The first detonation would not injure someone standing fifty feet away. The second would knock them down. The third would blow them to pieces. So you see  there are many variables. Even the air temperature and humidity level will affect the force of the blast. The effective range of your pipe bomb will vary depending on all the above. But I've a better idea  what say we leave such violence to the Sunday comics page and go on about our business peacefully?
Answers:Pyrodex is not a good choice for an explosive compound. It takes an extraordinarily hot igniter to set the stuff off  which is why I never use Pyrodex in my smokepoles. Several of my acquaintances who hunt with smokepoles and take them to the range have tried Pyrodex in their flintlocks  and discovered it simply won't work with that ignition system. For building a pipe bomb  and for gosh sakes what nitwit would want to do that  one would use plain ol' 1f or 2f black powder. Experience tells us that the effectiveness of a crude bomb such as you describe varies remarkably. Not only does it depend on the size of the device, but on where it's put and what surrounds it. Let's just give one example of the effectiveness of a black powder bomb, using a metering device that measures the force of the blast at a known distance. 25 pounds of black powder is placed in a simple wooden box and detonated in an open field. The recording device measures a blast force of "x" pounds. Then a second box with the same amount of black powder is placed in a trash can and the lid placed on the can, and that device detonated. The metering device records a higher blast force than the first time. Then yet another box with the same amount of black powder is detonated inside a closed building, and the metering device records an even greater blast than the previous two. The first detonation would not injure someone standing fifty feet away. The second would knock them down. The third would blow them to pieces. So you see  there are many variables. Even the air temperature and humidity level will affect the force of the blast. The effective range of your pipe bomb will vary depending on all the above. But I've a better idea  what say we leave such violence to the Sunday comics page and go on about our business peacefully?
From Youtube
How to Sweat Copper Pipes : Cutting Copper Pipes :Watch as a seasoned DIYer demonstrates how to effectively cut copper pipes before sweating (joining and soldering) them in this free online video about home repair. Expert: Don Golden Film Makers Louis Nathan/NEI Bio: Don Golden has been in the business of buying and remodeling homes in the Los Angeles area for over fifteen years. Filmmaker: Louis Nathan
How to Sweat Copper Pipes : Dry Fitting Copper Pipes :Watch as a seasoned DIYer demonstrates how to effectively dry fit copper pipes before sweating (joining and soldering) them in this free online video about home repair. Expert: Don Golden Film Makers Louis Nathan/NEI Bio: Don Golden has been in the business of buying and remodeling homes in the Los Angeles area for over fifteen years. Filmmaker: Louis Nathan