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From Wikipedia

Nitrate test

A nitrate test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrate ion in solution. Testing for the presence of nitrate via wet chemistry is generally difficult compared with testing for other anions, as almost all nitrates are soluble in water. In contrast, many common ions give insoluble salts, e.g. halides precipitate with silver, and sulfates precipitate with barium.

The nitrate anion is an oxidizer, and many tests for the nitrate anion are based on this property. Unfortunately, other oxidants present in the analyte may interfere and give erroneous results.

Brown ring test

A common nitrate test, known as the brown ring test can be performed by adding iron(II) sulfate to a solution of a nitrate, then slowly adding concentrated sulfuric acid such that the sulfuric acid forms a layer above the aqueous solution. A brown ring will form at the juction of the two layers, indicating the presence of the nitrate ion. Note that the presence of nitrite ions will interfere with this test.

The overall reaction is the reduction of the nitrate ion by iron(II) which is oxidised to iron(III) and formation of a nitrosyl complex.

NO3- + 3Fe2+ + 4H+→ 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O
[Fe(H2O)6]2+ + NO → [Fe(H2O)5(NO)]2+

Devarda's test

Devarda's alloy (Cu/Al/Zn) is a reducing agent. When reacted with nitrate in sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia is liberated. The ammonia formed may be detected by its characteristic odor, and by moist red litmus — very few gases other than ammonia evolved from wet chemistry are alkaline.

3 NO|3|- + 8 Al + 5 OH|- + 18 H|2|O → 3 NH|3 + 8 [Al(OH)|4|]|-

The aluminium does the reducing in this reaction.

Diphenylamine test

Diphenylamine may be used as a wet chemical test for the presence of the nitrate ion. In this test, a solution of diphenylamine and ammonium chloride in sulfuric acid is used. In the presence of nitrates, diphenylamine is oxidized, giving a blue coloration. This reaction has been used to test for organic nitrates as well, and has found use in gunshot residue kits detecting nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose.

Other oxidants such as chlorate, bromate, etc. interfere by similarly oxidizing diphenylamine. They may be removed by reduction with sodium sulfite. Where nitrite is present, a false negative result may be observed due to sulfite reducing nitrate in the presence of nitrite.

The diphenylamine test may be selective for nitrate by reducing nitrite with sodium azide, prior to treatment with sodium sulfite. Other derivatives have been reported as well.

Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant formula. The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is an ubiquitous solvent in chemistry.

Substances which are hydrophobic('water fearing') often do not dissolve well in water whereas those thathydrophilic('water-loving') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance would besodium chloride (ordinary table salt). Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions.

The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves. If the substance lacks the ability to dissolve in water the molecules form a precipitate.

Aqueous solutions that conduct electric current efficiently contain strong electrolytes, while ones that conduct poorly are considered to have weak electrolytes. Those strong electrolytes are substances that are completely ionized in water, whereas the weak electrolytes exhibit only a small degree of ionization in water.

Nonelectrolytes are substances that dissolve in water, but which maintain their molecular integrity (do not dissociate into ions). Examples include sugar, urea, glycerol, and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM).

When performing calculations regarding the reacting of one or more aqueous solutions, one generally must know the concentration, or molarity, of the aqueous solutions. Solution concentration is given in terms of the form of the solute prior to it dissolving.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Write complete ionic equation to show the reaction of aqueous Hg2(NO3)2 with aqueous sodium chloride to form solid Hg2Cl2 and aqueous sodium nitrate. Mercury ions (Hg2 2+) can be removed from solution by precipitation with Cl-. Suppose that a solution contains aqueous Hg2(NO3)2.

Answers:Hg 2(NO3)2(aq)+2 NaCl(aq)---> Hg2Cl2(s)+2 NaNO3(aq) mercury forms ions of +1 and +2, mercury(I) nitrate exists as well as mercury (II) nitrate

Question:What is the chemical formula and net ionic equation? Please please help ASAP

Answers:Ni(NO3)2(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) --> Ni(OH)2(s) + 2 NaNO3(aq) Since both of the reactants are soluble, the net ionic equation is Ni+2(aq) + 2(OH)-(aq) -->Ni(OH)2(s) Nickel hydroxide is an insoluble green precipitate.


Answers:Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NaI (aq) = PbI2 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq) lead (II) iodide will precipitate

Question:Of the solid.Can you please show me how you came up with the answer.Thank you.

Answers:I'm going to assume you meant to type Lead(II) Nitrate because I don't think Lead(III) nitrate exists. Na2SO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) The precipitate(solid) is Lead(II) sulfate, PbSO4.

From Youtube

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