application of nuclear chemistry
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Nuclear Pharmacy involves the preparation of radioactive materials that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases. It was the first pharmacy specialty established in 1978 by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties. Nuclear pharmacy seeks to improve and promote health through the safe and effective use of radioactive drugs for not only diagnosis but also therapy.
The concept of nuclear pharmacy was first described in 1960 by Captain William H. Briner while at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. Along with Mr. Briner, John E. Christian, who was a professor in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University, had written articles and contributed in other ways to set the stage of nuclear pharmacy. William Briner started the NIH Radiopharmacy in 1958. John Christian and William Briner were both active on key national committees responsible for the development, regulation and utilization of radiopharmaceuticals.A Technitium-99 (a radionuclide) generator was commercially availability which was followed by the availability of a no. of Tc-99m based radiopharmaceuticals.........
Though training in the field was initially restricted to military personnel, it was eventually expanded to include the private sector. The first civilian and first female instructed in the practice of Nuclear Pharmacy was Lori Schneider, trained at Letterman Army Medical Center, San Francisco in 1984.
Types of nuclear pharmacy
There are essentially two different kinds of nuclear pharmacy services called Institutional Nuclear Pharmacy and Commercial Centralized Nuclear Pharmacies:
- Institutional Nuclear Pharmacy is most likely operated through large medical centers or hospitals.
- Commercial Centralized Nuclear Pharmacies provide their services to subscriber hospitals. They prepare and dispense radiopharmaceuticals as unit doses that are then delivered to the subscriber hospital by nuclear pharmacy personnel.
There are certain precautions that must be taken into account when handling radiopharmaceutical materials on a daily basis. Nuclear pharmacists receive extensive training on the various radiopharmaceuticals that they use. They are trained in radiation safety and other aspects specific to the compounding and preparation of radioactive materials. Many things are required to become pharmacists, but to become a nuclear pharmacist one must go through the following training:
1. 200 hours of classroom training in basic radioisotope handling techniques specifically applicable to the use of unsealed sources is required. The training should consist of lectures and laboratory sessions in the following areas:
- * Radiation physics and instrumentation
- * Radiation protection
- * Mathematics of radioactivity
- * Radiation biology
- * Radiopharmaceutical chemistry
2. 500 hours in handling unsealed radioactive material under a qualified instructor is also required. This experience should cover the type and quantities of by-product material requested in the application and includes the following:
- * Ordering, receiving, surveying, and unpackaging radioactive materials safely.
- * Calibration of dose calibrators, scintillation detectors, and survey meters
- * Calculation, preparation, and calibration of patient doses including the proper use of syringe shield.
Primary tasks listed in the American Pharmacists Associationâ€™s Nuclear Pharmacy Practice Guidelines include:
- Order, receipt, storage and inventory control of radioactive drugs (radiopharmaceuticals), other drugs used in nuclear medicine, and related supplies
- Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals by combining radioisotopes with reagent kits, and compounding radiopharmaceuticals that are not commercially available
- Functional checks of instruments, equipment and devices and determination of radiopharmaceutical quality and purity
- Filling of prescription orders
- Packaging, labeling and transport of radiopharmaceuticals
- Proper handling of hazardous chemicals and biological specimens
- Communicating radiopharmaceutical-related information to others
- Assuring that patients receive proper preparation before radiopharmaceutical administration and trouble-shooting unanticipated outcomes
- Laboratory testing of new radiopharmaceuticals, new compounding procedures, quality control methods and participation in clinical trials
Nuclear pharmacists work in a more relaxed environment compared to other areas of pharmacy, such as hospital pharmacy or retail pharmacy. There is usually no interaction with customers because many work in a highly regulated environment where consumers are not allowed.
Although the potential for radiation exposure exists in this field, it is kept to a minimum by the use of syringes, gloves, and other devices specifically designed for radioactive materials. A nuclear pharmacist would use leaded glass shielding, leaded glass syringe shields, and lead containers while working with radioactive material. Hence, proper equipment and procedures reduce the risk of harm to personnel working in a nuclear pharmacy. Tungsten shielding is also used. While more expensive, it provides better shielding, does not break or deform like lead when dropped. It is also not toxic as lead is.
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Answers:Ok, I don't know what schools are good at this stuff. That's up to you to research. But I can tell you the difference between a nuclear engineer and a nuclear physicist, which will answer your 1 and 4 questions. A nuclear engineer designs and builds things that involve nuclear energy. Things like power stations and reactors for boats. They probably do stuff with weapons as well. And things like uranium enrichment. A nuclear physicist examines the forces that play a role in holding a nucleus together. At this point, the field of nuclear physics has become the field of particle or high energy physics, meaning that they have moved beyond nuclear forces into higher energy scales or smaller size scales. A nuclear physicist is not going to be interested in nuclear powerplants or weapons. That type of nuclear physics was discovered 70 years ago and is no longer of interest to any physicist. So if you want to do that, you want to be a nuclear engineer. These two careers are actually much more different than their titles would have you believe. The only reason they sound similar is because they both center around the nucleus of atoms. But one takes very simple nuclear concepts and applies them to real world devices. The other explores very complicated nuclear concepts that have no practical application to devises (at least not yet). As far as what you want to major in, you should major in nuclear engineering if you want to do that and major in physics if you want to do nuclear physics.
Answers:the production of iodine during nuclear fission
Answers:i think there are 4 in all... but what did you think about when you writed Requirements??
Answers:That's a lot of questions but what the heck: 1.a. 2. c 3. d 4. d 5. %remaining = (0.5)^(t/(half-life) = 0.5^((3.15x10^8)/(1.26x10^9)) = 0.841 = 84.1% 0.841 = (2.73x10^(-7))/(original amount) original amount = (2.73x10^(-7))/0.841 = 3.25x10^(-7)g Hope this helps