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From Wikipedia

Nuclear pharmacy

Nuclear Pharmacy involves the preparation of radioactive materials that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases. It was the first pharmacy specialty established in 1978 by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties. Nuclear pharmacy seeks to improve and promote health through the safe and effective use of radioactive drugs for not only diagnosis but also therapy.


The concept of nuclear pharmacy was first described in 1960 by Captain William H. Briner while at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. Along with Mr. Briner, John E. Christian, who was a professor in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University, had written articles and contributed in other ways to set the stage of nuclear pharmacy. William Briner started the NIH Radiopharmacy in 1958. John Christian and William Briner were both active on key national committees responsible for the development, regulation and utilization of radiopharmaceuticals.A Technitium-99 (a radionuclide) generator was commercially availability which was followed by the availability of a no. of Tc-99m based radiopharmaceuticals.........

Though training in the field was initially restricted to military personnel, it was eventually expanded to include the private sector. The first civilian and first female instructed in the practice of Nuclear Pharmacy was Lori Schneider, trained at Letterman Army Medical Center, San Francisco in 1984.

Types of nuclear pharmacy

There are essentially two different kinds of nuclear pharmacy services called Institutional Nuclear Pharmacy and Commercial Centralized Nuclear Pharmacies:

  • Institutional Nuclear Pharmacy is most likely operated through large medical centers or hospitals.
  • Commercial Centralized Nuclear Pharmacies provide their services to subscriber hospitals. They prepare and dispense radiopharmaceuticals as unit doses that are then delivered to the subscriber hospital by nuclear pharmacy personnel.

Required training

There are certain precautions that must be taken into account when handling radiopharmaceutical materials on a daily basis. Nuclear pharmacists receive extensive training on the various radiopharmaceuticals that they use. They are trained in radiation safety and other aspects specific to the compounding and preparation of radioactive materials. Many things are required to become pharmacists, but to become a nuclear pharmacist one must go through the following training:

1. 200 hours of classroom training in basic radioisotope handling techniques specifically applicable to the use of unsealed sources is required. The training should consist of lectures and laboratory sessions in the following areas:

* Radiation physics and instrumentation
* Radiation protection
* Mathematics of radioactivity
* Radiation biology
* Radiopharmaceutical chemistry

2. 500 hours in handling unsealed radioactive material under a qualified instructor is also required. This experience should cover the type and quantities of by-product material requested in the application and includes the following:

* Ordering, receiving, surveying, and unpackaging radioactive materials safely.
* Calibration of dose calibrators, scintillation detectors, and survey meters
* Calculation, preparation, and calibration of patient doses including the proper use of syringe shield.


Primary tasks listed in the American Pharmacists Association’s Nuclear Pharmacy Practice Guidelines include:

  • Order, receipt, storage and inventory control of radioactive drugs (radiopharmaceuticals), other drugs used in nuclear medicine, and related supplies
  • Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals by combining radioisotopes with reagent kits, and compounding radiopharmaceuticals that are not commercially available
  • Functional checks of instruments, equipment and devices and determination of radiopharmaceutical quality and purity
  • Filling of prescription orders
  • Packaging, labeling and transport of radiopharmaceuticals
  • Proper handling of hazardous chemicals and biological specimens
  • Communicating radiopharmaceutical-related information to others
  • Assuring that patients receive proper preparation before radiopharmaceutical administration and trouble-shooting unanticipated outcomes
  • Laboratory testing of new radiopharmaceuticals, new compounding procedures, quality control methods and participation in clinical trials

Work conditions

Nuclear pharmacists work in a more relaxed environment compared to other areas of pharmacy, such as hospital pharmacy or retail pharmacy. There is usually no interaction with customers because many work in a highly regulated environment where consumers are not allowed.

Although the potential for radiation exposure exists in this field, it is kept to a minimum by the use of syringes, gloves, and other devices specifically designed for radioactive materials. A nuclear pharmacist would use leaded glass shielding, leaded glass syringe shields, and lead containers while working with radioactive material. Hence, proper equipment and procedures reduce the risk of harm to personnel working in a nuclear pharmacy. Tungsten shielding is also used. While more expensive, it provides better shielding, does not break or deform like lead when dropped. It is also not toxic as lead is.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Thanks in Advance! 1) What are the differences associated with each subject area: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Engineering (and if possible, Nuclear Chemistry). 2) What undergrad majors and grad majors should I focus on for those three subjects (like Physics for first one, Chemistry for third one, etc)? 3) What universities (plural) are good/the best for those three subjects (and not just MIT and Caltech) on the undergraduate and then the graduate level? 4) Which subject goes for Nuclear reactor developments, future transportation theorists, or weapons development? Thanks Again!

Answers:Ok, I don't know what schools are good at this stuff. That's up to you to research. But I can tell you the difference between a nuclear engineer and a nuclear physicist, which will answer your 1 and 4 questions. A nuclear engineer designs and builds things that involve nuclear energy. Things like power stations and reactors for boats. They probably do stuff with weapons as well. And things like uranium enrichment. A nuclear physicist examines the forces that play a role in holding a nucleus together. At this point, the field of nuclear physics has become the field of particle or high energy physics, meaning that they have moved beyond nuclear forces into higher energy scales or smaller size scales. A nuclear physicist is not going to be interested in nuclear powerplants or weapons. That type of nuclear physics was discovered 70 years ago and is no longer of interest to any physicist. So if you want to do that, you want to be a nuclear engineer. These two careers are actually much more different than their titles would have you believe. The only reason they sound similar is because they both center around the nucleus of atoms. But one takes very simple nuclear concepts and applies them to real world devices. The other explores very complicated nuclear concepts that have no practical application to devises (at least not yet). As far as what you want to major in, you should major in nuclear engineering if you want to do that and major in physics if you want to do nuclear physics.

Question:i need to do an eight slide powerpoint on a topic about nuclear chemistry. what could be a good topic to write about?

Answers:the production of iodine during nuclear fission

Question:The prerequisite is General Chemistry 2. However, there is only one chapter on Nuclear chemistry and another on radiation. Are those the only chapters to worry about to succeed in an Introduction to Nuclear Engineering course or are there others?

Answers:i think there are 4 in all... but what did you think about when you writed Requirements??

Question:1.Which radiation requires the least shielding? A. alpha particlesB. Gamma rays C. beta radiationD. Protons 2. Beta particles are high speed A. Helium nucleiB. protonsC. electronsD. gamma rays 3. Which kind of radiation is not affected by a magnetic field? A. betaB. alphaC. protonsD. gamma 4. A radioactive atom will lose the greatest amount of mass when it emits A. a neutronB. a protonC. a beta particleD. an alpha particle 5. A transmutation reaction must involve A.a transfer of electrons from a metallic atom to a non metallic atom B.a sharing of electrons by non metallic atoms of the same element C.an increase in the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom D.a change in the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom 4. A piece of wood found in an ancient burial mound contains (25%) as much carbon-14 atoms as a piece of wood from a living tree. If the half life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years- what is the approximate age of the wood? a. 1432.5 yearsb. 2865 yearsc. 5730 yearsd. 11,460 years Geologists use the decay of potassium-40 in volcanic rocks to determine their ages. Potassium-40 has a half life of 1.26 x109 years, so it can be used to date very old rocks. If a sample of rock 3.15 x108 years old contains 2.73 x 10-7 g of potassium-40 toaday, how much potassium-40 was originally present in the rock?

Answers:That's a lot of questions but what the heck: 1.a. 2. c 3. d 4. d 5. %remaining = (0.5)^(t/(half-life) = 0.5^((3.15x10^8)/(1.26x10^9)) = 0.841 = 84.1% 0.841 = (2.73x10^(-7))/(original amount) original amount = (2.73x10^(-7))/0.841 = 3.25x10^(-7)g Hope this helps

From Youtube

Nuclear Chemistry II :This General Chemistry lecture is about radioactive decay kinetics, nuclear binding energy that can be released in nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions, carbon dating, and three medical applications of nuclear chemistry.

nuclear chemistry :nuclear chemistry By using logarithm table it's value gives most significant figures but in scientific calculators it gives round figure value .