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From Wikipedia

Tissue culture

Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue culture is being named for the plants.

Historical usage

In 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a section of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the basic principle of tissue culture.

In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph.

In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vacciniavirus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue.

Modern usage

In modern usage, "tissue culture" generally refers to the growth of eukaryotic cells in vitro. It is often used interchangeably with cell culture to specifically describe the in vitro culturing of sperm donor cells.

However, "tissue culture" can also be used to refer to the culturing of tissue pieces, i.e. explant culture or whole organs, i.e. organ culture.

It is a tool for the study of animal cell biology in vitro model of cell growth to allow a highly selective environment which is easily manipulated (used to optimize cell signaling pathways).

Cell culture

Cell culture is the complex process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions. In practice, the term "cell culture" has come to refer to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells. However, there are also cultures of plants, fungi and microbes, including viruses, bacteria and protists. The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture.

Animal cell culture became a common laboratory technique in the mid-1900s, but the concept of maintaining live cell lines separated from their original tissue source was discovered in the 19th century.


The 19th-century English physiologist Sydney Ringer developed salt solutions containing the chlorides of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium suitable for maintaining the beating of an isolated animal heart outside of the body.[http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/2119.html] In 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture. Ross Granville Harrison, working at Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Yale University, published results of his experiments from 1907–1910, establishing the methodology of tissue culture.

Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures.

Concepts in mammalian cell culture

Isolation of cells

Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivoculture in several ways. Cells can be easily purified from blood, however only thewhite cells are capable of growth in culture. Mononuclear cells can be released from soft tissues by enzymatic digestion with enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, which break down the extracellular matrix. Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. This method is known as explant culture.

Cells that are cultured directly from a subject are known as primary cells. With the exception of some derived from tumors, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. After a certain number of population doublings (called the Hayflick limit) cells undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing, while generally retaining viability.

An established or immortalisedcell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerasegene. There are numerous well established cell lines representative of particular cell types.

Maintaining cells in culture

Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37°C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. Culture conditions vary widely for each cell type, and variation of conditions for a particular cell type can result in different phenotypes being expressed.

Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the growth medium. Recipes for growth media can vary in pH, glucose concentration, growth factors, and the presence of other nutrients. The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from animal blood, such as calf serum. One complication of these blood-derived ingred

From Yahoo Answers

Question:This was one of the question for my microbiology review and im having a hard time finding an answer, does this have anything specifically to do with the entry and exit portals such as the respiratory system, and it's excrements such as mucous? How in general are virus samples collected from body or tissue samples? Any help would be greatly appreciated thanks!

Answers:You are using confusing terms. Tissue culture is a method where cells grown in "test tubes" in a liquid nutrient media. Tissue culture removes the individual cells from the effects of being a part of an organ or exogenous chemical signals like hormones. Is this what you mean or do you mean a Tissue SAMPLE? How you collect tissue samples depends on what you intend to do with the virus. You can collect cells which contain both whole virus and it component parts that are being assembled, or you can collect the liquid around the cells to get whole live virus. Sometimes there are no cells left as the virus destroys the cells at maturity. If you are doing PCR on the whole virus, you could even just place a very small piece of filter paper on the tissue sample and pcr that tiny piece of paper.

Question:I'm in 7th grade and i'm working on my science homework and i theres one question that i cant find an answer to! so if you would help me i would really appreciate it!

Answers:When you grow a plant from a cutting, you just cut a piece from the parent plant and put it in soil (maybe dipping it in a rooting powder first). For succulents, the cut end should be allowed to dry and harden first. Maybe you've done this yourself with a spider plant or Christmas cactus. For plant tissue culture, a scientist or plant propagator only removes a few cells from the meristem of a plant. The meristem (or meristematic tissue) is an area where the cells haven't differentiated into specialized cells (root, leaf, flower, etc.) yet, so these cells have the potential to grow into any type of cell in the plant. They're also too young to have been infected by viruses, so they can be used to produce disease-free plants. The cells are placed on a nutrient agar and sealed so the cells can grow into baby plants in a disease-free environment. This is the best way to produce a lot of plants that are identical to the parent plant the cells were taken from (they're clones of the plant that donated the cells) in a short period of time. Orchids were one of the first plants to be produced this way, but now there are lots more.

Question:So I need help with matching the correct epithelial tissue with its location and their can be more than one answer. Here are the choices which I can choose from: a) simple squamous epithelium, b) simple cuboidal epithelium, c) simple columnar epithelium, d)stratified squamous epithelium, e) goblet cells, f) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium 1. lining of oral cavity 2. outer layer of skin 3. lining of intestines 4. trachea and bronchi 5. Kidney tubules Match the type of connective tissue with its description and there can be more than one answer: So the choices are A)areolar connective tissue B) bone C) cartilage D) dense regular connective tissue E) blood F) adipose connective tissue 1. stores and synthesizes lipids 2. solid matrix 3. vascular connective tissue 4. forms ligament and tendons 5. syrupy ground substance

Answers:1. F 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. E

Question:Two homework questions I cannot find the answers too, if anyone knows please help! 1. Small masses of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called? 2. Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called? those are the exact 2 questions... help! I know they sound the same... maybe it was a teacher typo?

Answers:Are you sure you copied the two questions down correctly? They ask essentially the same thing, the only difference between the two is that (1) refers to 'small masses of neuron cell bodies' and (2) refers to 'collections of nerve cell bodies', with both entities being outside of the CNS. The name given to a collection of neuronal cell bodies outside the CNS is ganglia, like the dorsal root ganglia which are found at each spinal segment just outside of the spinal cord, and autonomic ganglia. If one of the question actually referred to a collection of neuronal cell bodies *inside* the CNS, then the name is usually nuclei.

From Youtube

Culture Shock - Twenty Questions :Am I an animal? Yes Am I alive? Yes Am I a cat? No Am I a fly? No Am I an insect? No Am I a dog? No Am I a rodent? No Am I a frog? No Am I very very big? Very very small? No Have I got four legs? (???) Any legs at all? Yes Am I a seagull? No Am I a bird? No Can't be a fish? No Oh it's getting absurd (too right) Am I a household pet? No Do I live in the zoo? No Do I live in the jungle? No Can I have a clue? No no no no no no no! Am I a human being? Yes! Well done It was the only thing left you know, yea ??? But it's not over yet (no). You've got to guess which one Guess which one, guess which one, guess which one Am I into politics? No Am I on TV? No Am I really famous? No A personality? No Am I in authority? No Am I in control? No Do I work in a factory? No Am I very very old? No Do I know who I am? Yes Am I in this place? Yes Am I in this conversation? Yes Is there a smile on my face? Yes yes Have I just realised that we are animals too? Yes yes! Do I resent the torture of circuses and zoos? Yes yes Do I condemn the hunters? Yes yes Do I condemn the butchers and the murders too? Yes yes Am I opposed to vivisection? Yes yes yes yes! Is there another direction? Yes yes But now I've got two answers, but either one will do See I knew it could be me But now I know it could be you It could be me, could be you, yes yes Could be me, could be you, yes yes Could be me, could be you, yes yes Could be me, could be, could be you

Cell Culture Basics from GIBCO :Cell culture refers to the removal of cells from an animal or plant and their subsequent growth in a favorable artificial environment. The cells may be removed from the tissue directly and disaggregated by enzymatic or mechanical means before cultivation, or they may be derived from a cell line or cell strain that has already been established. In this video, we present the basic equipment used in cell culture and proper way to set-up a laboratory. The entire Cell Culture Basics training course is available online at www.invitrogen.com The handbook and videos are intended as an introductory cell culture training course, covering topics such as getting familiar with the requirements of a laboratory dedicated to cell culture experiments, laboratory safety, aseptic technique, and microbial contamination of cell cultures, as well as providing basic methods for passaging, freezing, and thawing cultured cells.