Explore Related Concepts


Angle of Deviation Prism
Angle of deviation prism is an important tool to calculate the angle of deviation. Two important principles are involved in understanding the concept of angle of deviation prism, which are as follows: Reflection and
 Refraction.
 Speed of light in vacuum or air = 3 x 10 ^8 m/s.
 Speed of light in prism = 2 x 10 ^8 m/s (approximately)
Best Results From Wikipedia Yahoo Answers Youtube
From Wikipedia
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refractlight. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use "prism" usually refers to this type. Some types of optical prism are not in fact in the shape of geometric prisms. Prisms are typically made out of glass, but can be made from any material that is transparent to the wavelengths for which they are designed.
A prism can be used to break light up into its constituent spectralcolors (the colors of the rainbow). Prisms can also be used to reflect light, or to split light into components with different polarizations.
How prisms work
Light changes speed as it moves from one medium to another (for example, from air into the glass of the prism). This speed change causes the light to be refracted and to enter the new medium at a different angle (Huygens principle). The degree of bending of the light's path depends on the angle that the incident beam of light makes with the surface, and on the ratio between the refractive indices of the two media (Snell's law). The refractive index of many materials (such as glass) varies with the wavelength or color of the light used, a phenomenon known as dispersion. This causes light of different colors to be refracted differently and to leave the prism at different angles, creating an effect similar to arainbow. This can be used to separate a beam of white light into its constituent spectrum of colors. Prisms will generally disperse light over a much larger frequency bandwidth than diffraction gratings, making them useful for broadspectrum spectroscopy. Furthermore, prisms do not suffer from complications arising from overlapping spectral orders, which all gratings have.
Prisms are sometimes used for the internal reflection at the surfaces rather than for dispersion. If light inside the prism hits one of the surfaces at a sufficiently steep angle, total internal reflection occurs and all of the light is reflected. This makes a prism a useful substitute for a mirror in some situations.
Deviation angle and dispersion
Ray angle deviation and dispersion through a prism can be determined by tracing a sample ray through the element and using Snell's law at each interface. The exact expressions for prism deviation and dispersion are complex, but for small angle of incidence \theta_0 and small angle \alpha they can be approximated to give a simple formula. For the prism shown at right, the indicated angles are given by
 \begin{align}
\theta'_0 &\approx \frac{n_0}{n_1} \theta_0 \\ \theta_1 &= \alpha  \theta'_0 \\ \theta'_1 &\approx \frac{n_1}{n_2} \theta_1 \\ \theta_2 &= \theta'_1  \alpha \end{align}. For a prism in air n_0=n_2 \simeq 1. Defining n=n_1, the deviation angle \delta is given by
 {\delta = \theta_2 + \theta_0 \approx n \theta_1  \alpha + \theta_0 = n \alpha  n \theta'_0  \alpha + \theta_0 \approx (n  1) \alpha}
The dispersion \delta (\lambda) is the wavelengthdependent deviation angle of the prism, so that for a thin prism the dispersion is given by
 \delta (\lambda) \approx [ n (\lambda)  1 ] \alpha
Prisms and the nature of light
In Isaac Newton's time, it was believed that white light was colorless, and that the prism itself produced the color. Newton's experiments convinced him that all the colors already existed in the light in a heterogeneous fashion, and that "corpuscles" (particles) of light were fanned out because particles with different colors traveled with different speeds through the prism. It was only later that Young and Fresnel combined Newton's particle theory with Huygen's wave theory to show that color is the visible manifestation of light's wavelength.
Newton arrived at his conclusion by passing the red color from one prism through a second prism and found the color unchanged. From this, he concluded that the colors must already be present in the incoming light â€” thus, the prism did not create colors, but merely separated colors that are already there. He also used a lens and a second prism to recompose the spectrum back into white light. This experiment has become a classic example of the methodology introduced during the scientific revolution. The results of this experiment dramatically transformed the field of metaphysics, leading to John Locke's primary vs secondary quality distinction.
Newton discussed prism dispersion in great detail in his book Opticks. He also introduced the use of more than one prism to control dispersion. Newton's description of his experiments on prism dispersion was qualitative, and is quite readable. A quantitative description ofmultipleprism dispersion was not needed until multiple prism laser beam expanders were introduced in the 1980s.
In geometry, a cuboid is a solid figure bounded by six faces, forming a convex polyhedron. There are two competing (but incompatible) definitions of a cuboid in the mathematical literature. In the more general definition of a cuboid, the only additional requirement is that these six faces each be a quadrilateral, and that the undirected graph formed by the vertices and edges of the polyhedron should be isomorphic to the graph of a cube. Alternatively, the word â€œcuboidâ€� is sometimes used to refer to a shape of this type in which each of the faces is a rectangle (and so each pair of adjacent faces meets in a right angle); this more restrictive type of cuboid is also known as a right cuboid, rectangularbox, rectangular hexahedron, right rectangular prism, or rectangular parallelepiped.
General cuboids
By Euler's formula the number of faces (F), vertices (V), and edges (E) of any convex polyhedron are related by the formula "F + V  E" = 2 . In the case of a cuboid this gives 6 + 8  12 = 2; that is, like a cube, a cuboid has 6 faces, 8 vertices, and 12 edges.
Along with the rectangular cuboids, any parallelepiped is a cuboid of this type, as is a square frustum (the shape formed by truncation of the apex of a square pyramid).
Rectangular cuboid
In a rectangular cuboid, all angles are right angles, and opposite faces of a cuboid are equal. It is also a right rectangularprism. The term "rectangular or oblong prism" is ambiguous. Also the term rectangularparallelepipedor orthogonal parallelepiped is used.
The square cuboid, square box, or right square prism (also ambiguously called square prism) is a special case of the cuboid in which at least two faces are squares. The cube is a special case of the square cuboid in which all six faces are squares.
If the dimensions of a cuboid are a, b and c, then its volume is abc and its surface area is 2ab + 2bc + 2ac.
The length of the space diagonal is
 d = \sqrt{a^2+b^2+c^2}.\
Cuboid shapes are often used for boxes, cupboards, rooms, buildings, etc. Cuboids are among those solids that can tessellate 3dimensional space. The shape is fairly versatile in being able to contain multiple smaller cuboids, e.g. sugar cubes in a box, small boxes in a large box, a cupboard in a room, and rooms in a building.
A cuboid with integer edges as well as integer face diagonals is called an Euler brick, for example with sides 44, 117 and 240. A perfect cuboid is an Euler brick whose space diagonal is also an integer. It is currently unknown whether a perfect cuboid actually exists.
From Yahoo Answers
Answers:Data will obviously change as A/2 is the angle of refraction on one face and A has changed. Naturally A+dm will also change. Bu the result ill not change because it is tech property of the material ansd depends velocity of light in it and has nothing to do with the shape of the medium.
Answers:Hello George, congrats. A thought provoking query is made by you. The angle of the prism is one the factors to be considered. Say our prism is equilateral prism. Hence A = 60 deg. The refractive index of the material of the prism depends on the wavelength of the radiation passing through. So recalling the expression mu = sin {( A+D)/2}/ sin A/2, the value of D which suits well for mu and A, will be the minimum deviation for that particular colour. Hence that particular coloured ray would go parallel to the base of the prism. One more clue. We know angle of incidence i = A+D / 2. After setting for minimum deviation for the spectrum of colours of white light, with the given i and A, D could be calculated. The colour which has this calculated D will go parallel to the base of the prism. Lastly usually we rely on the yellow colour as the mean colour. So mostly yellow of the spectrum of white light will go parallel to the base of the prism.
Answers:Figure each side separately. Figure the base separately. add them together. Since there is a 90 angle, the base must be a Right angle. A of Right angle is bh 2 Sides appear to be scalene angles. So, side side Base: (10cm 6 cm) / 2 = 30cm Sides: (10cm 2cm)/2 = 10cm ...........,(6cm 2cm)/2 = 6cm ............(8cm 2cm)/2 = 8cm 30+10+6+8 = 54cm
Answers:A scientific reason is an explanation. You have got the angle of incidence wrong. Light does not deviate when entering a prism, if the angle of incidence is 0 . That is the angle between a perpendicular ( a normal ) from the surface and the incoming ray. We both know that you mean the ray to be perpendicular to the surface of the prism. You will find it useful to stick with the accepted way of describing such a ray as having an angle of incidence of 0 . Whenever a ray of light enters a new medium ( in this case the new medium is the glass of the prism ), it changes speed  in this case it slows down. If the angle of incidence is anything other than 0 then the slowing down will cause the beam to change direction; to bend towards the normal. The beam striking the glass at 0 will still slow down when in the glass but will not change direction  it can only keep going in its original direction because all its wavefront slows down at the same time. Striking at some other angle means that some bit of the wavefront starts slowing down before the rest and so the wave skews around.
From Youtube