anatomy and physiology final exam questions

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Question:21.Vasomotor tone a.Is maintained by the parasympathetic nervous system b.Occurs in response to the vasomotor center in the cerebellum c.Occurs when action potentials travel through sympathetic vasodilation fibers d.Keeps peripheral blood vessels in a partially constricted state 22.After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the a.Arteries b.Arterioles c.Capillaries d.Venules e.Veins 23.Which of these regulatory mechanisms would occur in response to a sudden increase in blood pressure? a.A decrease in vasomotor tone b.Vasodilation of blood vessels c.Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart d.All of these e.None of these 24.Venous valves are responsible for a.Preventing blood flowing from arteries to veins b.Channeling blood away from the heart c.Channeling blood toward the heart d.Both a and b e.Both A and C 25.Which of the following is a function of the blood? a.transport of nutrients and wastes b.transport of body heat c.transport of gases d.defense against toxins and pathogens e.all of the above 26.Formed elements make up about what average percentage of blood? a.65% b.38% c.60% d.45% e.20% 27.The total volume of blood in the body of a 76-kg (167lbs) man is approximately __ liters. a.10.0 b.7.1 c.5.5 d.4.2 e.3.8 28.A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is a.albumin b.fibrinogen c.immunoglobulins d.transport proteins e.lipoprotein 29.Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false? a.red cells are biconcave discs b.red cells lack mitochondria c.red cells are specialized for carrying oxygen d.red cells can form stacks called rouleaux e.red cells secrete cytokines (chemicals which attract white blood cells) 30.The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as a.hemocytoblasts b.reticulocytes c.band forms d.myeloid cells e.proerythrocytes 31.All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are a.granular leukocytes b.phagocytic c.have nuclei with several lobes (aka polymorphonuclear leukocytes) d.important in coagulation e.active in fighting bacterial infections 32.White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are a.neutrophils b.eosinophils c.basophils d.lymphocytes e.monocytes 33.____ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin a.vascular spasm b.the platelet phase c.retraction d.coagulation e.fibrinolysis 34.Which of the following vitamins is needed for the formation of clotting factors? a.vitamin A b.vitamin B c.vitamin K d.vitamin D e.vitamin E 35.Each hemoglobin molecule contains a.four alpha chains b.one alpha and one beta chain c.four iron atoms d.one heme group e.B and C only 36.A person with Type A blood has a.antigen A on the RBCs b.anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma c.anti-A agglutinins (antibodies) on the red blood cells d.A and B only e.B and C only 37.The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if a.the diet is deficient in iron b.there in insufficient heme in the hemoglobin c.a gene for adult hemoglobin is abnormal d.red blood cells bind too much oxygen e.hemolysis is prevented by a bad gene 38.When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect a.a drop in oxygen levels b.the release of erythropoietin c.a rise in hematocrit (% of formed elements in whole blood) d.both A and C e.A, B, and C 39.Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture wound in his finger and mixes it with various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-Rh sera. This means a.Bill could receive type A blood in a transfusion b.Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood c.Bill is Rh positive d.Bill s plasma contains B agglutinins (antibodies) e.A, B, and D 40.Type O blood is called the universal donor primarily due to this feature. a.contains anti-A and anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma b.contains A and B antigens on the RBCs c.contains no anti-A nor anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma d.contains no A and B antigens on the RBCs e.type O blood is the universal recipient not the universal donor

Answers:22. After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the d. Venules 24. Venous valves are responsible for c. Channeling blood toward the heart 25. Which of the following is a function of the blood? e. all of the above 29. Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false? e. red cells secrete cytokines (chemicals which attract white blood cells) (I think)

Question:Do we need carrier proteins to move water across a membrane? Explain. The natural movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is: a. diffusion b. active transport c. pinocytosis d. hemolysis Name a cell type that uses phagocytosis to carry out its functions. Cells in the respiratory airways and the fallopian tubes are lined with: a.ribosomes b.cilia c.centrioles d.cartilage Cells in the respiratory airways and the fallopian tubes are lined with: e.ribosomes f.cilia g.centrioles h.cartilage What is the function of microvilli? Is the cytoskeleton good for anything? Explain. What are the two layers of the basement membrane, and what makes each layer? Where would you most likely find tight junctions? Stratified squamous epithelium is primarily used for: a.mucus secretion b.serous membranes c.protection from abrasion d.smooth joint movement Epithelium consisting of four layers of flattened cells would best be described as _______________________________________ What tissue type lines the inside of kidney tubules? ____________________________________ Is a sebaceous gland apocrine, holocrine, or merocrine? If a histologist refers to a unicellular exocrine gland, the reference is to what cell type? __________________________________ Name a primary location for all eight epithelial tissue types discussed in class. Describe the general differences between epithelial tissue and connective tissue. What are the three main types of fibers found in the matrices of connective tissues? How does CT differ from epithelium? A connective tissue that binds muscles to bones is called a _______________. What makes up the matrix of bone? What makes up the matrix of blood? Describe the similarities and differences between hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage. Disks between vertebrae that help to absorb shock are primarily composed of: a.bone b.elastic connective tissue c.fibrocartilage d.adipose tissue Chondrocytes live within small cavities called: a. Volkmann's canals b. marrow cavities c. perichondrial lamellae d. lacunae Which two tissue types arise from ectodermal cells? How do mast cells initiate inflammation?

Answers:No, water is small enough that it can squeeze through the membrane a Macrophage b I am done too many questions.

Question:I really need the answers to these tricky questions b/c I'm failing A & P :(! 1.Carbohydrate molecules.. a.are integral molecules of the cell membrane b.contain the genetic information found in cells c.form the regulatory molecules known as enzymes d.are composed of C,H,O, and N atoms e. are the body's most readily available source of energy. 2.The most important high-energy compound in cells is a.adenosine triphosphate b.ribonucleic acid c.adenosine diphosphate d.adenosine monophosphate e.deoxyribonucleic acid 3.When atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons, they form... a.hydrogen bonds b.ionic bonds c.covalent bonds d.cations e.anions 4.The packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at the cell surface for importation into the cell is called a.osmosis b.endocytosis c.facilitated transport d.an ion exchange pump e.active transport

Answers:Hi... 1. E 2. A. 3. C. 4. B.

Question:Thank you in advance for your help! For each statement describing hormonal effects, identify the hormone(s) involved by choosing a number from Key A, and note the hormone's site of production with a letter from key B. More than one homone may be involved in some cases. For example: 16, L basal metabolism hormone KEY A: 1. ACTH 2. ADH 3. aldosterone 4. calcitonin 5. cortisone 6. epinephrine 7. estrogens 8. FSH 9. Glucagon 10. insulin 11. LH 12. oxytocin 13. progesterone 14. prolactin 15. PTH 16. T4/T3 17. Testosterone 18. Thymosn 19. TSH KEY B a. Adrenal Cortex b. Adrenal Medulla c. Anterior piuitary d. hypothalmus e. Ovaries f. Pancreas g. Parathryoid Glands h. Pineal Gland i. Posterior pituitary j. Testes k. Thymus l. Thyroid ___, ___ 1. Programming of T Lymphocytes ___, ___ and ___, ___ 2. Regulate bood calcium levels ___, ___ and ___, ___ 3. Released in response to stressors ___, ___ and ___, ___ 4. Drive development of secondary sexual characteristics ___, ___; ___, ___; ___,___: and ___, ___ 5. regulate the function of another endocrine gland ___, ___ 6. mimics the sympathetic nervous system ___, ___ and ___, ___ 7. regulate blood glucos levels; produced by the same mixed gland ___, ___ and ___, ___ 8. directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle ___, ___ and ___, ___ 9. maintenance of salt and water alance in teh extracellular fluid ___, ___ and ___, ___ 10. directly involved in milk production and ejection

Answers:1- 18,K 2- 4,L 15,G 3- 5,A 1,C (6,B can also be a choice depend on situation) 4- 17,J 7,E 5- 1,C 8,C 11,C 19,D (A lot of the hormones from key A also affect other endocrine gland. I can elaborate if you need.) 6- 6,B (weird question, tho this is one of the hormone release by sympathetic nervous system) 7- 9,F 10,F 8- 8,C 11,C 9- 2,D 3,A 10- 14,C 12,D The keys did not use: 13-Progesterone support gestation, high in luteal phase, no question. 16-T4/T3 deal with basal metabolic rate, no question. I-Posterior Pituitary is not a site of endocrine production, but a site of hormone release. H-Pineal Gland mainly deal with melatonin, which is not in key A.

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