anaerobic respiration

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Question:does anaerobic and aerobic respiration occur in us humans at the same time? just as well as do they work the same but just as anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen and what exactually does anaerobic respiration do?

Answers:Anaerobic and aerobic respiration does occur at the same time in humans because the first few steps of respiration do not require oxygen. The difference between aerobic and anarobic respiration is the number of ATP molecule that can be produced. When oxygen is present, 36 ATP molecules are created as opposed to anarobic respiration that only produces 2 net ATP molcules.

Question:Step 1 of anaerobic respiration in yeast provides chemical energy in the form of ATP. Step 2, alcohol fermentation, produces no further energy - however it is essential for anaerobic respiration to occur. Why is it essential for anaerobic respiration to occur??

Answers:Fermentation is the process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, and using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound, as opposed to respiration where electrons are donated to an exogenous electron acceptor, such as oxygen, via an electron transport chain. Fermentation does not necessarily have to be carried out in an anaerobic environment. For example, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, yeast cells greatly prefer fermentation to oxidative phosphorylation, as long as sugars are readily available for consumption. Sugars are the most common substrate of fermentation, and typical examples of fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen. However, more exotic compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone. Yeast carries out fermentation in the production of ethanol in beers, wines and other alcoholic drinks, along with the production of large quantities of carbon dioxide. Fermentation occurs in mammalian muscle during periods of intense exercise where oxygen supply becomes limited, resulting in the creation of lactic acid. Energy source in anaerobic conditions Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized), but are considered waste products, since they cannot be metabolized further without the use of oxygen (or other more highly-oxidized electron acceptors). A consequence is that the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by fermentation is less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation, whereby pyruvate is fully oxidized to carbon dioxide. Water temperature must be warm for fermentation. However, yeast cells will die if it is too hot. Ethanol fermentation (performed by yeast and some types of bacteria) breaks the pyruvate down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is important in bread-making, brewing, and wine-making. Usually only one of the products is desired; in bread-making, the alcohol is baked out, and, in alcohol production, the carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere or used for carbonating the beverage. When the ferment has a high concentration of pectin, minute quantities of methanol can be produced. Homolactic fermentation breaks down the pyruvate into lactate. It occurs in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. It also occurs in some kinds of bacteria (such as lactobacilli) and some fungi. It is this type of bacteria that converts lactose into lactic acid in yogurt, giving it its sour taste. These lactic acid bacteria can be classed as homofermentative, where the end product is mostly lactate, or heterofermentative, where some lactate is further metabolized and results in carbon dioxide, acetate or other metabolic products. Hydrogen gas is produced in many types of fermentation (mixed acid fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, caproate fermentation, butanol fermentation, glyoxylate fermentation), as a way to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is oxidized by hydrogenase, producing H2. Hydrogen gas is a substrate for methanogens and sulfate reducers, which keep the concentration of hydrogen sufficiently low to allow the production of such an energy-rich compound.

Question:Name the inputs and outputs of aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. please help im so lost!

Answers:Aerobic respiration: A type of respiration in which foodstuffs (usually carbohydrates) are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of chemical energy, in a process requiring atmospheric oxygen. Equation: Glucose + Oxygen -----> 'E' + Carbon dioxide + Water Input: 1).glucose 2).oxygen Output: 1).A large amount of energy 2).Carbon dioxide 3).Water Anaerobic respiration: A type of respiration in which foodstuffs (usually carbohydrates) are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen. Since the substrate in never completely oxidized the energy yield of this type of respiration is lower than that of aerobic respiration. Equation for human anaerobic respiration: Glucose -----> 'e' + lactic acid Equation for some yeasts and bacteria: Glucose -----> 'e' + ethanol (alcohol) + carbon dioxide Input: 1).glucose Output: 1).small amount of energy 2).lactic acid (in humans) 3).ethanol (in bacteria and yeasts) 4).carbon dioxide (in bacteria and yeasts)

Question:The anaerobic pathway used by animals has more potential for energy conservation than anaerobic respiration in plants. i) Discuss this statement with reference with the two pathways. ii) Discuss the value to humans of ethanol production by micro-organisms. *All of that is worth just 5 marks/points. HELP ME, PLEASE!!!

Answers:In animals the product of fermentation is lactic acid (CH3OHCOOH) and in plants it is ethanol & carbon dioxide (CH3CH2OH + CO2). Thus in animals there are more intact bonds following fermentation and so energy has been conserved more for future release in metabolism. Ethanol production - a whole brewing industry is based on this.Social value, economic value....

From Youtube

Anaerobic Respiration :Free Science Help at Brightstorm! brightstorm.com The process of anaerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration :Same deal as the aerobic vid.