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From Wikipedia

Monocalcium phosphate

Monocalcium phosphate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(H2PO4)2. It is commonly found as the monohydrate, Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O.

Uses

Fertilizer

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient and therefore is a common component of agricultural fertilizers. Tricalcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2, a major component of phosphate rock such as phosphorite, apatite, and other phosphate minerals, is too insoluble to be an efficient fertilizer. Therefore it can be converted into the more soluble monocalcium phosphate, generally by the use of sulfuric acid H2SO4. The result is hydrated to turn the calcium sulfate into the dihydrategypsum and sold as superphosphate of lime. Alternately phosphate rock may be treated with phosphoric acid to produce a purer form of monocalcium phosphate and is sold as triple phosphate.

Superphosphate

Superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on powdered phosphate rock.

3 Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 6 H2SO4(aq) → 6 CaSO4(aq) + 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(aq)

"In 1840, Justus Von Liebig wrote, 'The crops on the field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminution or increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure.' Von Liebig was the first to discover that phosphate of lime in bone meal could be rendered more readily available to plants by treatment with sulfuric acid. Sir John Bennett Lawes about the same time discovered that phosphate rock underwent the same reaction and could be used as a source ingredient. In the 1840s, scientists found that coprolites could be dissolved in sulfuric acid to produce what became known as superphosphate. Bennett Lawes was the first to manufacture superphosphate at his factory in Deptford, England in 1842."

A large market for superphosphate was created in the second half of the 20th century by the development of aerial topdressing in New Zealand which allowed superphosphate to be spread economically over large areas.

Superphosphate can be created naturally in large quantities by the action of guano, or bird feces, resulting in deposits around sea bird colonies which can be mined. The most famous mining site is the island of Nauru in the South Pacific from which much of the "soil" was mined, creating temporary wealth for the inhabitants.

Triple superphosphate

Triple superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphate rock.

Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 4 H3PO4(aq) → 3 Ca 2+(aq) + 6 H2PO41-(aq) → 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(aq)

The active ingredient of the product, monocalcium phosphate, is identical to that of superphosphate, but without the presence of calcium sulfate that is formed if sulfuric acid is used instead of phosphoric acid. The phosphorus content of triple superphosphate (17 - 23% P; 44 to 52% P2O5) is therefore greater than that of superphosphate (7 - 9.5% P; 16 to 22% P2O5). Triple superphosphate was the most common phosphate (P) fertilizer in the USA until the 1960s, when ammonium phosphates became more popular. It is produced in granular and nongranular form and is used both in fertilizer blends (with potassium and nitrogen fertilizers) and by itself.

Leavening agent

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is also used in the food industry as a leavening agent to cause baked goods to rise. Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient – commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or potassium bicarbonate– it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt. The carbon dioxide gas is what leavens the baked good. When combined in a ready-made baking powder, the acid and alkali ingredients are included in the right proportions such that they will exactly neutralize each other and not significantly affect the overall pH of the product.


Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is a chemical compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways of all organisms. It is a phosphate ester of the 3-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde and has chemical formulaC3H7O6P.

The CAS number of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is 142-10-9 and that of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (one of the two optical isomers of the compound and the one most often occurring in living organisms) is 591-57-1.

An intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis

Formation

D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is formed from the following three compounds in reversible reactions:

The numbering of the carbon atoms indicates the fate of the carbons according to their position in fructose 6-phosphate.

As a substrate

D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is also of some importance since this is how glycerol (as DHAP) enters the glycolytic and gluconeogenetic pathways. Furthermore, it is a participant in and a product of the pentose phosphate pathway.

An intermediate in photosynthesis

During plant photosynthesis, 2 molecules of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP; also known as 3-phosphoglycerate) are produced by the first step of the light-independent reactions when ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and carbon dioxide are catalysed by the rubisco enzyme. The GP is converted to D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) using the energy in ATP and the reducing power of NADPH as part of the Calvin cycle. This returns ADP, phosphate ions Pi, and NADP+ to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis for their continued function. RuBP is regenerated for the Calvin cycle to continue.

G3P is generally considered the prime end-product of photosynthesis and it can be used as an immediate food nutrient, combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, such as glucose, which can be transported to other cells, or packaged for storage as insoluble polysaccharides such as starch.

Balance sheet

6 CO2 + 6 RuBP (+ energy from 12 ATP and 12 NADPH) → 12 G3P (3-carbon)

10 G3P (+ energy from 6 ATP) → 6 RuBP (ie starting material regenerated)

2 G3P→ glucose (6-carbon).

In tryptophan biosynthesis

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate occurs as a byproduct in the biosynthesis pathway of tryptophan, an essential amino acid that cannot be produced by the human body.

In thiamine biosynthesis

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate occurs as a reactant in the biosynthesis pathway of thiamine (Vitamin B1), another substance that cannot be produced by the human body.


Ammonium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide, also known as ammonia water, ammonical liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or simply ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although its name suggests a base with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is not actually possible to isolate samples of NH4OH — it exists only in dilute aqueous solutions, and even then only comprises a tiny fraction of the total ammonia.

Basicity of ammonia in water

In aqueous solution, ammonia deprotonates a small fraction of the water to give ammonium and hydroxide according to the following equilibrium:

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH−.

In a 1M ammonia solution, about 0.42% of the ammonia is converted to ammonium, equivalent to a pH of 11.63. The base ionization constant is

Kb = [NH4+][OH-]/[NH3] = 1.8×10−5

Saturated solutions

Like other gases, ammonia exhibits decreasing solubility in solvent liquids as the temperature of the solvent increases. "Ammonium hydroxide" solutions decrease in density as the concentration of dissolved ammonia increases. At 15.6|°C|°F, the density of a saturated solution is 0.88 g/ml and contains 35% ammonia by mass, 308 g/l w/v, (308 grams of ammonia per litre of solution) and has a molarity of approximately 18 mol L−1. At higher temperatures, the molarity of the saturated solution decreases and the density increases.

When solutions that are saturated at cold temperatures are sealed in containers and subsequently warmed, the concentration of the solution decreases and the vapor pressure of ammonia gas increases. Unsealing such containers can lead to a burst of ammonia gas. In extreme cases, the containers could rupture.

From a chemist's perspective, one should be aware that the concentration of a saturated solution is continually dropping as the container is handled in a warmer environment. Thus, old samples of ammonium hydroxide will deviate from 18 M, as can be verified by titration.

Applications

Household ammonia is dilute ammonium hydroxide, which is also an ingredient of numerous other cleaning agents, including many window cleaning formulas. In addition to use as an ingredient in cleansers with other cleansing ingredients, ammonium hydroxide in water is also sold as a cleaning agent by itself, usually labelled as simply "ammonia". It may be sold plain, lemon-scented (and typically colored yellow), or pine-scented (green).

In industry, ammonium hydroxide is used as a precursor to some alkyl amines, although anhydrous ammonia is usually preferred. Hexamethylenetetramine forms readily from aqueous ammonia and formaldehyde. Ethylenediamine forms from 1,2-dichloroethane and aqueous ammonia.

In furniture-making, ammonium hydroxide was traditionally used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid. Tannic acid with ammonium hydroxide or iron salts creates a brown stain which can be applied to wood.

Ammonium hydroxide is used in the meat packing industry. Some companies treat their beef "with a pH enhancement process that forms ammonium hydroxide in the finished product."

Laboratory use

Aqueous ammonia is used in traditional qualitative inorganic analysis as a complexant and base. Like many amines, it gives a deep blue coloration with copper(II) solutions. Ammonia solution can dissolve silver residues, such as that formed from Tollens' reagent.

When ammonium hydroxide is mixed with dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a metal ion, such as Cu2+, the peroxide will undergo rapid decomposition.


Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calciumions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions .

It is the principal form of calcium found in bovine milk. Seventy percent of bone is made up of hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral (known as bone mineral). Tooth enamel is composed of almost ninety percent hydroxyapatite.

Chemical Properties

Unlike most other compounds calcium phosphate is increasingly insoluble at higher temperatures. Thus heating causes precipitation.

In milk it is found in higher concentrations than would be possible at the normal pH because it exists in a colloidal form in micelles bound to casein protein with magnesium, zinc and citrate - collectively referred to as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP)

Uses

It is used in the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers, for example in the Odda process. Overuse of certain forms of calcium phosphate can lead to nutrient-containing surface runoff and subsequent adverse effects upon receiving waters such as algal blooms and eutrophication.

Calcium phosphate is used in baking as a raising agent, with E number E341 . It is also used in cheese products.

Tricalcium phosphate is also used as a nutritional supplement and occurs naturally in cowmilk, although the most common and economical forms for supplementation are calcium carbonate (which should be taken with food) and calcium citrate (which can be taken without food). Hydroxyapatite (e.g. calcium hydrogen phosphate) as a food supplement has not been currently studied well, so its usage as a supplement is discouraged.

It is used in a variety of dental products for remineralization and as a diluent in some medications where it will give the tablet a grey colour in the absence of additional colouring agents.

Another practical application of the compound is its use in gene transfection of cells. It is not too well understood, but the calcium phosphate precipitate DNA and form a complex that is thought to help the DNA enter the cell.

Calcium phosphates

In addition to the above, of the compounds occurring in the CaO-H2O-P4O10 phase diagram, Ca4P2O9 (probably Ca3(PO4)2.CaO) is notable.

Compendial status



From Yahoo Answers

Question:

Answers:ammonium phosphate is (NH4)3PO4 ferrous acetate is Fe(C2H3O2)2 this is because acetate is (-1) charged and ferrous means iron in the (+2) state. so you need to acetate ions to make the net charge 0... 2 (NH4)3PO4 + 3 Fe(C2H3O2)2 6 NH4(C2H3O2) + Fe3(PO4)2 the reason you get Fe3(PO4)2 is because iron has a +2 charge and 3x+2 = +6 while PO4 has a -3 charge and 2 x -2 = -6 ***** daniel **** your equation isn't balanced and the acetate ion is C2H3O2 from acetic acid CH3-COOH you remove the H from the O and get CH3-COO- which is the acetate group....

Question:

Answers:Acetic acid is: CH3COOH This will react with the base ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH You know that when you react an acid with a base you produce a salt ( ammonium acetate) and water. The easy way to understand this is to write the equation: CH3COO[H HO]H4N for you to see this easily I have written the NH4OH backwards and enclosed the H2O molecule in [ ] . Take out this H2O and what do you have left: CH3COONH4. That is the formula for ammonium acetate.

Question:

Answers:With water as a product, this could be any number of reactants. I would suggest Calcium oxide or hydroxide, Acetic acid and one of the Ammonium hydrogen phosphate salts. If the water was just used as a solvent, the the reactants are Calcium acetate and Ammonium phosphate.

Question:

Answers:Produces superphosphate, a mixture of calcium sulphate and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (monocalcium phosphate) Ca3(PO4)2 + 4 H2SO4 + 2 H2O 2 CaSO4 2H2O + Ca(H2PO4)2 H2O Above formula is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_dihydrogen_phosphate