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From Wikipedia

Ammonium acetate

Ammonium acetate is a chemical compound with the formula CH3COONH4 (or C2H4O2.NH3 or C2H7NO2). It is a white solid, which can be derived from the reaction of ammonia and acetic acid. It is available commercially and, depending on grade, can be rather inexpensive.

Uses and distinctive properties

As the salt of a weak acid and a weak base, ammoniumacetate has a number of distinctive properties.

  • NH4C2H3O2 is occasionally employed as a biodegradable de-icing agent.
  • It is often used with acetic acid to create a buffer solution, one that can be thermally decomposed to non-ionic products
  • Ammonium acetate is useful in the Knoevenagel condensation in organic synthesis.
  • It is relatively unusual example of a salt that melts at low temperatures.
  • Can be used with distilled water to make a protein precipitating reagent.
  • Is often used as an aqueous buffer for ESImass spectrometry of proteins and other molecules.

Ammonium acetate is volatile at low pressures. Because of this it has been used to replace cell buffers with non-volatile salts, in preparing samples for mass spectrometry. It is also popular as a buffer for mobile phases for HPLC with ELSD detection for this reason. Other volatile salts which have been used for this include ammonium formate.

Properties

CH3COONH4 is hygroscopic. It decomposes easily at elevated temperatures into acetamide.

CH3COONH4→ CH3C(O)NH2 + H2O

In this reaction, a salt is converted to two molecular species, which is a relatively uncommon conversion at mild temperatures.


Ammonium chlorate

Ammonium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO3.

It is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate or ammonium sulfate, producing the respective carbonate or sulfate precipitate and an ammonium chlorate solution. Ammonium chlorate crystallizes in small needles, readily soluble in water.

On heating, ammonium chlorate decomposes at about 102 °C, with liberation of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen. It is soluble in dilute aqueous alcohol, but insoluble in strong alcohol. This compound is a strong oxidizer and should never be stored with flammable materials.

Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature. This results from the mixture of the reducing ammonium cation and the oxidizing chlorate anion. It will explode when exposed to sunlight for a few minutes. Even solutions are known to be unstable. Because of the dangerous nature of this salt it should only be kept in solution when needed, and never be allowed to crystallize.



From Yahoo Answers

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Answers:Potassium Phosphate Monobasic buffer, Ammonium Carbonate buffer,potassium Phosphate dibasic Buffer, Ammonium Acetate Buffer, Sodium Phosphate Buffer,

Question:I am looking into how the pH of dichromated gelatin is affected after exposure to light in an attempt to selectively transfer acid fixing dyes to paper. I would like to raise a 10% solution of ammonium dichromate to pH 7, but I am not sure what buffer would be most effective and safe. Any insight?

Answers:(NH4)2Cr2O7 and NH4OH buffer.

Question:How does the carbonic buffer system work? How would you use the Herdersen-Hasselbalch equation to determine the ratio and concentration of bicarbonate to carbonic acid to prove if it is a good enough buffer for the body? example numbers: pH=7.55 pK of HCO3 is 10.33 conc of HCO3 in blood is 21mM

Answers:The "carbonic acid" system: CO2(aq) + H2O <==> H+ + HCO3- -- Ka = 4.3 x 10^-7 You will notice the absence of H2CO3. That is because there is no H2CO3. As a molecule, It does not exist in aqueous solution. What we have called carbonic acid in the past is the equilibrium system of carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen (hydronium) ions and bicarbonate ions. Clearly, it is a good buffer system because evolution has selected it to maintain the pH of our blood. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an equation which approximates the pH of a buffer system based on the concentrations of a weak acid and its conjugate base, and the assumption that concentration of the undissociated acid does not change. pH = pKa + log([base]/[acid])

Question:Carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate act as buffers in the blood. When a small amount of acid is added to this buffer, the H+ ions are used up as they combine with the bicarbonate ions. When this happens, the pH of the blood_________________________ is reversible becomes acidic doesn't change becomes basic ionizes

Answers:Doesn't change