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A common name of an organism (also known as a vernacular name,colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, or farmer's name) is a name in general use within a community; it is often contrasted with a scientific name. A common name is not necessarily a commonly used name.
The use of common names in folk taxonomy
Not all common names form part of a classification of objects, but many do. Folk taxonomy, a classification of objects which uses common names, has no formal rules. In contrast, scientific or biological nomenclature is a global system that uniquely denotes particular organisms, and helps anchor their position within the hierarchical scientific classification system. Maintenance of this system involves formal rules of nomenclature and periodic international meetings, such as those laid down by the ICZN.
Common names and the binomial system
The form of scientific names for organisms that we know as binomial nomenclature is derived from the simple and practical noun-adjective form of vernacular names used by prehistoric culturesâ€”with a collective name such as owl, made more specific by the addition of an adjective such as screechâ€” only with the use of Latin as a universal language. Linnaeus himself published a Flora of his homeland Sweden, Flora Svecica (1745), and in this he recorded the Swedish common names region by region along with the scientific names â€” and the Swedish common names were all binomials (e.g. plant no. 84 RÃ¥g-losta and plant no. 85 Ren-losta) â€” the vernacular binomial system thus preceded his scientific binomial system.
Linnaean authority William T. Stearn expresses the link between common names and Latin scientific names as
Geographic range of use
The geographic range over which a particular common name is used varies; some common names have a very local application, while others are virtually universal within a particular language. Vernacular names are generally treated as having a fairly restricted application, usually referring to the native language of a country or locality as opposed to more broad-based usage. A colloquial name may be regarded as of very local use, insufficient to be included in the general dictionaries of the language concerned.
Lists of common names
Lists of general interest
- Plant by common name
- Garden plants
- Culinary herbs and spices
- Poisonous plants
- Plants in the Bible
- Culinary vegetables
- Useful plants
- Plants and animals
See lists of collective nouns (e.g. a flock of sheep, forest of trees, hive of bees)
Some organizations have created official lists of common names, or guidelines for creating common names, hoping to standardize the use of common names.
For example, the Australian Fish Names List or AFNS was compiled through a process involving work by taxonomic and seafood industry experts, drafted using the CAAB (Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota) taxon management system of the CSIRO, and including input through public and industry consultations by the Australian Fish Names Committee (AFNC). The AFNS has been an official Australian Standard since July 2007 and has existed in draft form (The Australian Fish Names List) since 2001. Seafood Services Australia (SSA) serve as the Secretariat for the AFNC. SSA is an accredited Standards Australia (Australiaâ€™s peak non-government standards development organisation) Standards Development
A set of guidelines for the creation of English names for birds was published in The Auk in 1978.
alkene , any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (see chemical bond ). Alkenes with only one double bond have the general formula C n H 2n . In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of chemical nomenclature, the name of an alkene is derived from the name of the corresponding alkane by replacing the - ane alkane suffix with - ene and, if necessary, adding a prefix to indicate the location of the double bond in the molecule. The IUPAC name of the simplest alkene, H 2 C[symbol]CH 2 , is ethene, which is derived from ethane. Propene is related to propane. Two alkenes, 1-butene and 2-butene, are related to butane; these two compounds, which differ in the location of the double bond in their molecules, are structural isomers . In addition to these IUPAC names, many of the alkenes have common names, e.g., ethene is called ethylene and propene propylene. The alkenes as a group are sometimes called the ethylene series. Since the carbon-carbon double bond is sometimes called an olefinic linkage, the alkenes are sometimes called the olefins. Many of the reactions in which alkenes take part involve the cleavage of half the carbon-carbon double bond and subsequent formation of two single bonds, one to each of the adjacent carbon atoms. Such reactions include hydrogenation, with the formation of an alkane, and hydration, with the formation of an alcohol.
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Answers:You're part way there with #1 (sort of). Methanal is an aldehyde so methanal would be methyl aldehyde more commonly known as formaldehyde.
Answers:rubbing alcohol - isopropyl alcohol, 2-propanol CH3CHOHCH3
Answers:ketones are named using IUPAC nomenclature by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -one http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldehyde. best look at this one for the aldehydes, i think from my a-level lessons, they have the suffix of -al from the original parent alkane e.g ethanal propanal etc hope this helps :)
Answers:To name any alkane, simply follow these 10 rules (go through them in order): 1) The following names are the basis of the system. The name depends on the number of carbon atoms: 1 carbon CH4: methane 2 carbons C2H6: ethane 3 carbons C3H8: propane 4 carbons C4H10: butane 5 carbons C5H12: pentane 6 carbons C6H14: hexane 7 carbons C7H16: heptane 8 carbons C8H18: octane 9 carbons C9H20: nonane 10 carbons C10H22: decane 2) For alkanes with branched carbon chains, determine which chain is the principal chain. The principal chain is the longest contiguous carbon chain. 3) If two or more chains in the structure have the same length, the principal chain is the one with the most branches. 4) Number the carbon atoms of the principal chain from one end to the other in the direction that gives the lowest number to the first branching point. 5) Name each branch and identify the carbon number on the principal where it is attached. For branch names, use the names from Part 1, but remove "ane" and add "yl" (e.g. methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.) There are certain special groups with their own names, such as isopropyl, tert-butyl, and isobutyl (look these up for more information). 6) Construct the molecule name by adding the carbon number of the principal chain where it attached, then a hyphen, the name of the branch, and finally the name of the principal chain. That is: branching # hyphen branch name principal chain name Note that there are NO SPACES, such that the branch name and principal chain name form one word. 7) If the principal chain contains more than one branch, each branch receives its own number. Use the prefixes di, tri, tetra for 2,3, or 4 identical branches (respectively) 8) If substituent groups at more than one carbon of the principal chain, alternative number schemes are compared. The one that gives the lowest value is used. 9) Substituent groups are cited in the name in alphabetical order, regardless of their order of occurrence in the molecule. Prefixes di, tri, tetra, and tert are ignored, but prefixes iso, neo, and cyclo are not! 10) If number of different groups is not resolved by other rules, first cited group gets the lowest number. 11) if more than one same branches gets same no. from either side then number the chain such that the sum of the number of the branched carbon must be lower.