alcoholic silver nitrate test
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A nitrate test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrate ion in solution. Testing for the presence of nitrate via wet chemistry is generally difficult compared with testing for other anions, as almost all nitrates are soluble in water. In contrast, many common ions give insoluble salts, e.g. halides precipitate with silver, and sulfates precipitate with barium.
The nitrate anion is an oxidizer, and many tests for the nitrate anion are based on this property. Unfortunately, other oxidants present in the analyte may interfere and give erroneous results.
Brown ring test
A common nitrate test, known as the brown ring test can be performed by adding iron(II) sulfate to a solution of a nitrate, then slowly adding concentrated sulfuric acid such that the sulfuric acid forms a layer above the aqueous solution. A brown ring will form at the juction of the two layers, indicating the presence of the nitrate ion. Note that the presence of nitrite ions will interfere with this test.
The overall reaction is the reduction of the nitrate ion by iron(II) which is oxidised to iron(III) and formation of a nitrosyl complex.
- NO3- + 3Fe2+ + 4H+→ 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O
- [Fe(H2O)6]2+ + NO → [Fe(H2O)5(NO)]2+
Devarda's alloy (Cu/Al/Zn) is a reducing agent. When reacted with nitrate in sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia is liberated. The ammonia formed may be detected by its characteristic odor, and by moist red litmus — very few gases other than ammonia evolved from wet chemistry are alkaline.
- 3 NO|3|- + 8 Al + 5 OH|- + 18 H|2|O â†’ 3 NH|3 + 8 [Al(OH)|4|]|-
The aluminium does the reducing in this reaction.
Diphenylamine may be used as a wet chemical test for the presence of the nitrate ion. In this test, a solution of diphenylamine and ammonium chloride in sulfuric acid is used. In the presence of nitrates, diphenylamine is oxidized, giving a blue coloration. This reaction has been used to test for organic nitrates as well, and has found use in gunshot residue kits detecting nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose.
Other oxidants such as chlorate, bromate, etc. interfere by similarly oxidizing diphenylamine. They may be removed by reduction with sodium sulfite. Where nitrite is present, a false negative result may be observed due to sulfite reducing nitrate in the presence of nitrite.
The diphenylamine test may be selective for nitrate by reducing nitrite with sodium azide, prior to treatment with sodium sulfite. Other derivatives have been reported as well.
A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens — silver bromide (AgBr), chloride (AgCl), iodide (AgI), and three forms of silver fluorides. As a group, they are often referred to as the silver halides, and are often given the pseudo-chemical notation AgX. Although most silver halides involve silver atoms with oxidation states of +1 (Ag+), silver halides in which the silver atoms have oxidation states of +2 (Ag2+) are known, of which silver(II) fluoride is the only known stable one.
The light-sensitive chemicals used in photographic film and paper are silver halides.
Silver halides are used in photographic film and photographic paper, as well as graphic art film and paper, where silver halide crystals in gelatin are coated on to a film base, glass or paper substrate. The gelatin is a vital part of the emulsion as the protective colloid of appropriate physical and chemical properties. Gelatin may also contain trace elements (such as sulfur) which increase the light sensitivity of the emulsion, although modern practice uses gelatin without such components. When absorbed by an AgX crystal, photons cause electrons to be promoted to a conduction band (de-localized electron orbital with higher energy than a valence band) which can be attracted by a sensitivity speck, which is a shallow electron trap, which may be a crystalline defect or a cluster of silver sulfide, gold, other trace elements (dopant), or combination thereof, and then combined with an interstitial silver ion to form silver metal speck.
Silver bromide and silver chloride may be used separately or combined, depending on the sensitivity and tonal qualities desired in the product. Silver iodide is always combined with silver bromide or silver chloride, except in the case of daguerreotype production where a daguerreotype (one of the oldest photographic processes) is developed with pure red light instead of mercury vapors (a method known as the Bequerelle method, named for the inventor who discovered the phenomenon). Silver fluoride is not used in photography.
When a silver halide crystal is exposed to light, a sensitivity speck on the surface of the crystal is turned into a small speck of metallic silver (these comprise the invisible or latent image). If the speck of silver contains approximately four or more atoms, it is rendered developable - meaning that it can undergo development which turns the entire crystal into metallic silver. Areas of the emulsion receiving larger amounts of light (reflected from a subject being photographed, for example) undergo the greatest development and therefore results in the highest optical density.
Silver halides, except for silver fluoride, are extremely insoluble in water. Silver nitrate can be used to precipitate halides; this application is useful in quantitative analysis of halides. The precipitation of silver halides via silver nitrate is also useful for abstracting halide leaving groups.
However, close attention is necessary for other compounds in the test solution. Some compounds can considerably increase or decrease the solubility of AgX. Examples of compounds that increase the solubility include: cyanide, thiocyanate, thiosulfate, thiourea, amines, ammonia, sulfite, thioether, crown ether. Examples of compounds that reduces the solubility include many organic thiols and nitrogen compounds that do not possess solubilizing group other than mercapto group or the nitrogen site, such as mercaptooxazoles, mercaptotetrazoles, especially 1-phenyl-5-mercaptotetrazole, benzimidazoles, especially 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, benzotriazole, and these compounds further substituted by hydrophobic groups. Compounds such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate enhance solubility when they are present in a sufficiently large quantity, due to formation of highly soluble complex ions, but they also significantly depress solubility when present in a very small quantity, due to formation of sparingly soluble complex ions.
Scientists from Tel Aviv University are experimenting with silver halide optical fibers for transmitting mid-infrared light from carbon dioxide lasers. The fibers allow laser welding of human tissue, as an alternative to traditional sutures.
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Answers:for example when we add AgNO3 to a solution of halides we we get any AgCl, AgBr, & any AgI that can form but we might be interested if the mix contains any AgCl by adding concentrated ammonia, AgCl dissociates into solution more than any of the others do but with the others in the mix, how do we now if the ammonia was able to dissociate anything... we pour off the ammonia extract & acidify with HNO3, if the ammonia had dissociated any AgCl, the ppt will return when the ammonia is neutralized if no precipitate returns upon acidifying with HNO3, then we say that the mix did not contain AgCl
Answers:This is because a compound of silver with any halogen is definitely insoluble in water. This is the ONLY compound of silver that gives such a result, and it can be immediately concluded that halogen(s) are present in the unknown reactant. Also, the other product of the reaction is a nitrate, which is soluble in water and will not affect the results. This is why it is the specific test for the halogens. FYI, silver chloride gives white, silver bromide gives yellow-white, and silver iodide gives yellow. The colour intensity increases down the group. Taking Y to be a halide and X to be a positive ion, AgNO3 (aq) + XY (aq) --> AgY (s) + XNO3 (aq) Thus it can be seen very clearly that the precipitate formed contains a halogen.
Answers:well the acid is simply added to know if sulphite ion or carbonate ion is present...usually when acid are added, required observations are to look for effervescence
Answers:If you'll recall your solubility chart, you'll see that most salts of Ag+ are insoluble, and most of them are white (before they react with light, in which case they turn black). I would guess that the reason you're adding this is to ensure that the distillate is free of ions. If it is, you should observe no change. If there are other ions in there (that form insoluble salts with Ag+), then you will see a precipitate (which will appear as a solid if there's enough of it, or it will make the solution cloudy if there's just a little bit). I don't know what the orange and yellow are all about. Of course, I am assuming that you are distilling water. Are you certain that it is silver nitrate and not lead nitrate? The latter would make a yellow salt with chloride ions...